Collection Overview

With one of the oldest and most distinguished collections in Florida, the Cornell Fine Arts Museum can boast of more than 5,000 objects from antiquity to the contemporary. The broad and eclectic holdings of the museum—the only encyclopedic collection in the Greater Orlando area—include over 500 paintings, from the 14th through the 20th centuries, and over 1600 works on paper (prints, drawings, and photographs), as well objects, artifacts, and archaeological fragments from world cultures which reflect  Rollins College’s commitment to educating students for global citizenship.

CFAM continues to build its collection strategically, through gift and purchase. Notable acquisitions in recent years include works by a range of acclaimed artists, from Gilbert Stuart and Paul Cézanne to Louise Nevelson and Felrath Hines. In 2013 a new chapter – the art of the 21st century – was added to CFAM’s holdings through the vision and generosity of Barbara and Ted Alfond (Rollins ‘68). The Alfond Collection of Contemporary Art at Rollins College includes over 130 paintings, photographs and sculptures by contemporary and emerging international artists. The Cornell Fine Arts Museum, like most if not all of its peer institutions, can only display a fraction of its holdings at any given time.

We invite you to browse the selection below, a sample of our growing collection. Additional images will be uploaded on an ongoing basis.

Roselli Henri Plensa




 Renaissance and Baroque

Roselli Coffermans fontana Bassano Turchi Rubens Wouwerman              
    Rosselli       Coffermans       Fontana       Bassano         Turchi           Rubens      Wouwerman   
de Paula Ferg Tiepolo Anonymous
 de Paula Ferg       Tiepolo   Anonymous   


Cosimo Rosselli (Italian, 1439–1507)
Madonna Enthroned Nursing the Christ Child, c. 1470
Tempera, oil, gilding on panel, 40 x 22 in.
Gift of the Samuel H. Kress Foundation

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This altarpiece shows the Virgin Mary enthroned in a heavenly rose garden while nursing the Christ Child. It may have been used in a private chapel or a church side-chapel. Cosimo Rosselli was the master of Piero di Cosimo, Mariotto Albertinelli, and Fra Bartolommeo—all of whom were leaders of the High Renaissance. In 1482, Pope Sixtus IV called Rosselli to Rome to paint the walls of his new Sistine Chapel, along with Botticelli, Ghirlandaio, and Perugino (the teacher of Raphael). The influence of Botticelli, whose works Rosselli knew well, is seen in the Cornell Christ Child.


Attributed to Marcellus Coffermans (Netherlandish, active 1549-died after 1575)
The Crucifixion with Saint John, the Virgin Mary, and Mary Magdalene, c. 1550
Oil on canvas mounted on panel, 16 1/2 x 12 1/4 in.
Gift of Marjorie Myers Ginn, Francis B. Myers II, John C. Myers, Jr., R'42, and Everett M. Myers in memory of John C. Myers, Sr.

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One of the early owners of this painting, Alberto J. Pani (a former Secretary of Finance for Mexico), believed it to be by the great Flemish painter Rogier van der Weyden, who was working primarily in Brussels in the mid-1400s. This work is definitely not by Van der Weyden; it is later. However, this scene of the Crucifixion is certainly influenced by Van der Weyden's emotive style. It has been suggested that the image may have been painted by Marcellus Coffermans, who was working in Antwerp a century later. Coffermans is known to have copied many of Van der Wyden's works, and this seems to be a case in point. The figures in this scene, especially that of St. John (on the left), bear similarities to the Crucifixion by Van der Weyden now in the Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna. Below the crucified Christ, Mary Magdalene clings to the Cross in agony. To the left, the Virgin Mary swoons in her grief and is supported by St. John who looks to Christ with an elegiac gaze. This is a scene of refined grief used for personal meditation on the sacrifice of Christ. In the background is an obviously European city. Whether this is meant to stand for Jerusalem or the original location of this painting is debatable. Throughout the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, the use of generic cityscapes to delineate specific locations was commonplace. One of the best-known examples of this is the Nuremberg Chronicle--the masterpiece of fifteenth century printing--an edition of which is housed in the Metropolitan Museum of Art. This cityscape certainly benefits from a history of printed and painted images of early urbanization.


Lavinia Fontana (Italian, 1552–1614)
The Dead Christ with Symbols of the Passion, 1581
Oil, tempera on panel, 14 1/4 x 10 5/8 in.
Gift of the late General and Mrs. John J. Carty, in memory of her brother, Thomas Russell

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This small painting would have been used for private meditation on the Passion of Christ. The symbols of Christ's suffering are all included: the Cross, the column on which he was whipped, three nails (held by the angel at the right), the wounds in Christ's body, the whip, and the Crown of Thorns. What is most interesting about The Dead Christ with Symbols of the Passion, however, is not the iconography but rather the artist. Lavinia Fontana was the first successful female painter in the Renaissance. She, like the later and better-known Artemisia Gentileschi, was born to an artist father from whom she learned her trade. Lavinia married a minor nobleman, Gian Paolo Zappi, who had also studied painting under the elder Fontana. Zappi, realizing he was only a mediocre artist, seems to have been happy supporting his wife's talent, acting as her manager. He also ran their household and supervised the education of their eleven children. With her husband's contacts, Lavinia was able to gain access to many noble families, which assured her numerous lucrative commissions. Lavinia, like her father Prospero (1512-1597), was influenced by mannerism, a style found in the later Renaissance that is a formulized and exaggerated continuation of the technique of Michelangelo. In its most pronounced form, mannerism is a rejection of the classicizing themes of balance and harmony so associated with Renaissance art. In this painting, the slightly elongated body of Christ, the twisting, contorted bodies of the angels (especially the angel in the foreground who is supporting the Cross), as well as the disproportion between the size of the heads and the bodies, illustrate mannerist tendencies. Following the sixeteenth-century artist and critic Giorgio Vasari, himself a mannerist, artists painting in this style believed that refinement, invention, and virtuosic technique were all hallmarks of artistic greatness. Rather than being concerned with mimesis, mannerist artists prized conception and elaboration in their works.

 Workshop of Bassano

Workshop of Gerolamo Bassano (Italian, 1566–1621)
Noah Leading Animals into the Ark, c. 1595
Oil on canvas, 30 1/4 x 36 in.
Gift of Marjorie Myers Ginn, Francis B. Myers II, John C. Myers, Jr., R'42, and Everett M. Myers in memory of John C. Myers, Sr.

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The Bassanos were a family of painters in Renaissance Venice: father Jacopo Basano (1510–1592) and his sons worked together, often on the same canvas, and acquired a sizable clientele for their paintings that depicted religious and genre scenes in everyday landscapes and interiors. Jacopo created a series of four paintings of the biblical flood; they were replicated numerous times by his sons and assistants. Gerolamo was the fifth and youngest son of Jacopo and worked very closely with his father, repeating his tried and true compositions without developing much of his own distinctive style.


Alessandro Turchi (Itallian, 1578–1649)j
The Virgin and Child with the Young John the Baptist, c. 1625
Oil on slate, 18 1/2 x 13 3/4 in.
Gift of Marjorie Myers Ginn, Francis B. Myers II, John C. Myers, Jr., R'42, and Everett M. Myers in memory of John C. Myers, Sr.

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Alessandro Turchi painted this moving work in oil on slate, rather than canvas; the varnished slate increases the chiaroscuro (light and dark) effect, giving the figures a greater sculptural sense. Mary, Jesus, John, and Francis are composed within an isosceles triangle, a composition that harks back to the Renaissance. Francis of Assisi (1182-1226) has had a vision of the Virgin Mary, and we are here witnesses to it. Turchi was influenced by Caravaggio, Guido Reni, and Annibale Caracci, to whom our painting was once ascribed.

 Follower of Rubens

Follower of Peter Paul Rubens (Flemish, 1577–1640)
The Virgin and Child Adored by Saints, c. 1630
Oil on canvas, 31 1/2 x 25 in.
Gift of Marjorie Myers Ginn, Francis B. Myers II, John C. Myers, Jr., R'42, and Everett M. Myers in memory of John C. Myers, Sr.

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This oil painting depicts the Madonna and Christ child enthroned in heaven while being worshipped by twelve saints. It is a smaller version of Peter Paul Rubens' large altarpiece of the same subject that was in the Church of the Augustinian Fathers in Antwerp, completed in 1628. The artist of our work has grasped Rubens' original grandiose baroque composition well. The Cornell painting oscillates with the high drama, flickering light, and swirling movements typical of the baroque--and of Rubens' finest works. The original work was commissioned by the Augustinian Fathers of Antwerp to be placed on the high altar of their church. It seems possible that Rubens, the greatest exponent of the Flemish baroque, may have painted a small portion of our canvas. Several conservators who have worked on Rubens' other paintings have agreed that our image bears striking similarities to Rubens' brushwork. The colors and other elements point clearly to a seventeenth-century artist for our painting. Our painting differs in several important respects from the altarpiece in Antwerp: our Sebastian grasps his bow with his hand straight out, while in the Antwerp painting he wraps his arm around the bow; William's accoutrements are missing in ours, but much more of the pavement is visible; the bent right arm of George is pointed back in ours, etc. These variations indicate a bright, independent artist copying Rubens, possibly one who knew of Rubens' studies for the altarpiece.

 School of Wouwerman

School of Philips Wouwerman (Dutch, 1619–1668)
Halt of Travelers, c. 1660
Oil on canvas, 10 x 11 1/4 in.
Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Albert C. Balink

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This small painting, originally believed to be by the Dutch painter Philips Wouwerman, is now thought to be a copy of a Wouwerman executed by a follower, perhaps much later. The theme, that of travelers resting on a long journey, is characteristic of Wouwerman's landscapes. However, the lack of fine detail leads us to think this is not, in fact, by the renowned artist's hand. Philips Wouwerman was the son of the painter Paulus Joostens Wouwerman (d. 1642), and had two brothers, Pieter and Jan, who were also painters. Little is known of Wouwerman's early life and education; on 4 September 1640 he joined the Guild of St. Luke in Haarlem. Philips Wouwerman is considered the most accomplished seventeenth-century Dutch equine painter and, as in Halt of the Travelers, horses frequently appear in his landscapes. Though he lived only forty-eight years, there are more than 1000 paintings which bear his name; however, it is felt that some of these should be attributed to his brothers, Pieter and Jan.


Franz de Paula Ferg (Austrian, 1689–1740)
The Building of Noah's Ark, c. 1730
Oil on panel, 9 x 12 1/2 in.
Gift of Marjorie Myers Ginn, Francis B. Myers II, John C. Myers, Jr., R'42, and Everett M. Myers in memory of John C. Myers, Sr.

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Franz de Paula Ferg, the son of the painter Adam Pankraz Ferg (1651-1729), was born in Vienna. He first studied with his father, but he was influenced early on by the etchings of Jacques Callot (1592-1635) and his imitator Sébastien Le Clerc the Elder (1637-1714). Though he was working in the eighteenth century, Ferg's penchant for minute, perfectly rendered detail is more in keeping with late-seventeenth-century Dutch and Flemish painting. Ferg has populated this landscape with hundreds of people and animals all taking part in some way in the building of the Ark. This ability with fine detail suited Ferg for his work as a draftsman in the famed Meissen porcelain factory. The charm of this painting is found in the innumerable moments of surprise one has when studying it closely. Whether it is the discovery of the peacock balanced gracefully on the edge of the roof in the left foreground, or the boats, diminutive in relation to the Ark, which glide gently past on the lake, the small campfires in the distance, or the children playing in the foreground, this painting rewards each viewing with a new discovery.


Giovanni Domenico Tiepolo (Italian, 1727–1804)
St. John Gualbert (Contemplating the Crucifix), c. 1753
Oil on canvas, 24 1/2 x 17 3/4 in.
Gift of the Myers Family, and Mr. and Mrs. John C. Myers, Jr., R'24, and June Reinhold Myers, R'41

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Saint John Gualbert (or Giovanni Gualberto) was born in Florence during the eleventh century. He had a younger brother who had been murdered; Gualbert pursued the murderer and was about to slay him, when the assassin extended his arms in the shape of a cross and asked for mercy in the name of Jesus Christ. Instead of exacting revenge, Gualbert embraced his brother’s killer. Afterward Gualbert entered a nearby church to give thanks for having resisted the impulse to commit murder. As he prayed, the image of Christ on the crucifix appeared to incline his head toward him. Gualbert was moved to forsake the world and enter a Benedictine monastery, and later founded the Vallombrosan monastic order. This painting celebrates the miracle of Gualbert's spiritual awakening. The greatest Italian artist of the eighteenth century, Giovanni Battista Tiepolo (1696-1770) worked with his son, Giovanni Domenico Tiepolo, at the Archbishop's Residenz Palace in Würzburg, Germany, between 1750 and 1753, when Giovanni Domenico painted this work. Giovanni Domenico is known to have favored genre scenes, and paintings on a smaller, more realistic scale.


Anonymous (Netherlandish, mid-seventeeth century
Harbor Scene, mid-seventeenth century
Oil on canvas, 8 1/2 x 12 1/2 in.
Gift of the Myers Family, Mr. and Mrs. John C. Myers, Jr., R'42, and June Reinhold Myers, R'41

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This small Harbor Scene derives its charm from the meticulous detail and range of activity found within it. In style and subject matter, it owes a great deal to sixteenth-century Dutch painting. As such, it was probably painted by a minor, provincial artist in the Low Countries. The scene is reminiscent of a well-known work, River Landscape, painted by the Flemish master Jan Brueghel the Elder (1568-1625) which now hangs in the National Gallery of Art, Washington. Just as in the Brueghel, the boatman in this painting hands a lady a baby wrapped in blankets (lower right corner). While Harbor Scene bears definite similarities to the earlier masterpiece, the orientation of the picture is reversed. This leads one to believe that the later artist may have based his work on an engraving of Brueghel's composition as images are often reversed through the printing process.

Old Masters Prints & Drawings

Baldini Guilio Cambiaso Andreani Saenredam Callot Collignon
   Baldini        Anonymous  att. Cambiaso    Andreani     Saenredam      Callot           Collignon
Callot3 Van Ostade Della Bella
   Callot         van Ostade    della Bella

Balddini Baccio Baldini (Italian, c. 1436–1487) after Sandro Botticelli (1444/45–1510)
Dante and Virgil, with a Vision of Beatrice,
c. 1481–7
Engraving on paper, 3 3/4 x 6 3/4 in.
Gift of Mrs. Ruth Funk

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The Cornell’s Dante and Virgil, with a Vision of Beatrice belongs to a series of engravings that illustrate the first nineteen cantos of Dante’s Inferno, the first part of the Divine Comedy. Meant to visualize the dialogues between Dante and his guide in the second canto, this represents the pair of poets twice, depicting two stages. Shown on the left is Dante, who expresses to Virgil his flagging confidence before setting off on the journey down to Hell. In the middle, the Roman poet reassures Dante by relating how Beatrice, Dante’s deceased love, came down from Heaven to Limbo and asked him to help save Dante from the latter’s plight. Encouraged Dante follows Virgil toward the Gate of Hell, which is rendered here in a rugged terrain on the right. Inscribed above the entrance, “PER ME” (“Through me” in Italian) are the first words of the three opening lines of the third canto.

The consensus is that Baccio Baldini, a Florentine goldsmith and engraver, created this series of nineteen prints based on Sandro Botticelli’s lost drawings. Though hardly reflective of Botticelli’s sophisticated draughtsmanship, Baldini’s engravings are historically significant. With their clear, thick contour lines and fine cross-hatchings for shading, they exemplify what is called the Fine Manner, one of two principal styles in early Italian intaglio prints (such as engravings and drypoints, whose images are incised into a metal surface). Baldini’s work also informs us about the technical difficulties in producing engraved illustrations for printed books in the late fifteenth century. His Inferno prints were originally intended as book illustrations for a 1481 edition of the Divine Comedy, issued in Florence with a commentary by the great humanist Cristoforo Landino (1424–1498). This publication was supposed to be fully illustrated, with one engraving for each canto. Most surviving copies, however, contain no more than the first two plates, testifying to a failed attempt at embellishing a printed book with engravings, rather than with crude woodcuts as normal at that time. The Florentine edition of the Divine Comedy was only the sixth, and by far the most ambitious, experiment of that kind in Italy. Such trials were soon abandoned, not to be taken up again until the late sixteenth century.

Dating Baldini’s engravings has long been contested. Now they are generally dated around 1481–1487: that is, begun after completing the printing of the text and interrupted with the engraver’s death.

after Guilio

Anonymous Italian engraver (the so-called School of Marcantonio Raimondi) after Giulio Romano (Italian, c. 1499–1546)
The Horatii and the Curiatii, 1541
Engraving on paper, 11 1/8 x 16 1/8 in.
Purchased with the Wally Findlay Acquisition Fund


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The inscription on the decorative cartouche informs us that Antonio Salamanca (1478–1562) published this work in Rome in 1541. It also identifies the print’s subject as the glorious combat between the Horatii and the Curiatii. According to Roman legends, these pairs of triplet brothers fought to settle the war between Rome and Alba Longa. Salamanca, a Spaniard by birth, settled in Rome and was very successful as publisher and dealer of printed images. The vast majority of those bearing his name and address are engravings by unknown artists, as is the case for the Cornell’s example. The designation, “the school of Marcantonio Raimondi,” refers to anonymous sixteenth-century printmakers whose graphic techniques are indebted to that of the influential Italian printmaker, Raimondi (ca. 1470/82–1527/34).    
This unknown engraver did not conceive the composition by himself; instead, he copied a fresco painting by the celebrated architect and artist Giulio Romano (ca. 1499–1546). In 1527–1534, Romano designed the famous Palazzo del Tè in Mantua for Duke Federico II Gonzaga (1500–1540), and he also decorated many of its rooms with mural paintings. One of these chambers, called Sala dei Venti (“room of the winds”), has its vaulted ceiling richly frescoed with various scenes including zodiac signs, and its upper wall, with sixteen medallions. The Cornell’s engraved image derives from one of these roundels, one that represents a combat of gladiators. The engraving differs from Romano’s fresco only in details, such as its background and format. Its composition is also reversed like a mirror image.


Attributed to Luca Cambiaso (Genoese, 1527–1585)
Madonna della Misericordia, c. 1570
Pen and brown ink, black chalk, and brown wash on laid paper
Purchased by the Wally Findlay Acquisitions Fund

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The drawing’s subject, known as the Madonna della Misericordia, or the Virgin of Mercy, represents Mary as merciful intermediary between Christ and the devout, sheltering the faithful under her wide open mantle held by two angels. In this pen-and-ink drawing attributed to Luca Cambiaso, the towering Virgin gently gazes down at, and blesses, male prayers gathering on her right side. Echoing her blessing gesture with an extended arm, the Christ Child nesting in her arm looks toward the flock of the kneeling females on his left.

A Genoese artist, Cambiaso is well-known for his distinctive draftsmanship. With rapid pen strokes, he drew simplified, yet clear forms in lines, and with ink wash applied in broad brushstrokes, emphasized figures’ plastic volumes and the fall of light and shadow on forms. Cambiaso’s drawings were so influential and highly valued that already in the late sixteenth century, other artists frequently copied them and imitated his vigorous technique, which complicates identifying the master’s authentic drawings from his imitators’. What makes the task of authenticating the authorship of Cambiaso’s even more difficult is that the artist incessantly drew not only as preparatory studies for his paintings, but also as autonomous works in themselves. His Genoese patrons in fact collected them as fully finished artworks. Though none of Cambiaso’s extant paintings represent a Madonna della Misericordia, the artist could have created the Cornell’s drawing as an autonomous work. It cannot be ascertained, at this point, whether the Madonna della Misericordia is by Cambiaso himself; Giovanni Battista Paggi (1554 – 1627) has been suggested as a potential alternative attribution. Either way, this stunning drawing undoubtedly demonstrates a masterful draftsmanship, which closely resembles that of the celebrated Genoese artist, especially around 1570.     


Andrea Andreani (Mantuan, 1558/59–1629) after Raffaellino da Reggio (Florentine, c. 1550–1578)
The Entombment, 1585
Chiaroscuro woodcut on paper, 16 1/4 x 12 3/4 in.
Purchased with the Wally Findlay Acquisition Fund

Signature/Date/Inscription: Raff. Da Reggio Invent. Andrea Andreano / Mant. Intagliatore: /All et Ecc, mo sig. r Don Giovanni/ Medici. 1585

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Andrea Andreani, born in Mantua and active in Rome, Florence and Siena, was the only Italian printmaker who created a sizeable number of chiaroscuro woodcuts in the late sixteenth century. Chiaroscuro woodcut is a type of print made from multiple woodblocks that are inked in closely related hues of colors, rather than from one block. The printed image resultant from this process creates an effect of chiaroscuro (meaning “light and shadow” in Italian) analogous to that in painting—that is, three-dimensional modeling effect through shading and lighting. It also creates a pictorial approximation to an ink-and-wash drawing and a hand-colored print.  The Entombment by Andreani was made from four separate blocks.

The subject of the print, the entombment, was a very popular theme in Christian art, depicting the moment when the Christ’s dead body is about to be placed in a tomb, and all the attendants mourn. Here, Joseph of Arimathea, lost in deep sorrow, supports the lifeless body, and behind him, John the Evangelist weeps. In the foreground, the grieving Virgin Mary has fainted out into the arms of Mary Magdalene. Another Mary who is said to have also witnessed the event dramatically opens her arms in disbelief, expressing her immense anguish.
As the inscription at the bottom left tells us, Andreani’s engraving is dated to 1585, and it faithfully reproduces a painting by Raffaellino da Reggio, a little-known Florentine painter. This inscription also indicates that the print is dedicated “to the most illustrious and excellent Signor Don Giovanni de Medici.” It is speculated that Giovanni may have commissioned Andreani—who was then working in Florence—to reproduce da Reggio’s design, because it is quite unusual that Andreani reproduced a work by such a minor artist.



Jan Saenredam (Dutch, 1565–1607) after Abraham Bloemaert (Dutch, 1566–1651) Vertumnus and Pomona, 1605
Engraving on paper, 18 3/4 x 14 1/4 in.
Purchased with the Anniversary Acquisition Fund

Signature/Date/Inscription: “A. Bloemaert. inve. / J. Saenredam sculp. / et excu-.”; and at the bottom right, “A˚. 1605.” In the lower margin, “Inter Hamadryadas cultrix asperrima nymphas / Hortorum POMONA fuit, cui semina foetus / Arborei curae, et septi pomaria ruris, / Et vites sociare ulmis, et stringere curvâ / Falce comas; stirpemq- invito inducere trunco, / Et pomis onerare pyros, vimq- addre malis; / Atq- laborantes aspergere fontibus hortos, / Tortus ubi cucumis, tumidoq- cucurbita ventre / Lenta iacet, pronaq- inclinat brassica caule: / Sola inter dumos neglecta cruca iacebat. / Nympha, viri impatiens, studio devota colendi, / Fugit lascivos paganica mimina Faunos, / Et licet indignam passus sine fine repulsam / Aptus in omnigenas speciem variare figuras / VERTUMNUS simulavit anum, glebaq- resedit: / Et rigidas Paphiis mulcenti vocibus aures / Redditur oris honos, Baccho vel Appolline dignus / Priscaq- celatae renovatur forma inventae: / Victa Dea est, parilemq- ignem confessa rubore / Ivit in amplexus, inus offusa medullis. TSchrevelius.

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The story of love and seduction rendered in Vertumnus and Pomona is drawn from Ovid's Metamorphoses, the most popular classical literary source for visual artists in Renaissance and Baroque Europe. Vertumnus, the Roman god of changing seasons, fell in love with a beautiful nymph, Pomona, who was known for rejecting all her suitors and being dedicated to her gardens and orchards alone. Well aware of her reputation, Vertumnus approached her by disguising himself as an old lady, and he eventually convinced her of his love with his melodious voice.

In this large engraving by a seventeenth-century Dutch artist Jan Saenredam, Pomona is seated in the nude in the middle of her garden full of succulent fruits and vegetables; she holds a pruning knife, which is her attribute. The twenty-line poem printed in the lower margin, which the Dutch writer Theodore Schrevel (1572–1649) penned paraphrasing Ovid’s passages in Latin, describes Pomona’s lush garden like the following: “there are crooked cucumber, the pumpkin with its inflated body, the cabbage decumbent on an inclined stem, the cauliflower lying neglected among the undergrowth.” Saenredam depicts such natural details prominently in the foreground. Represented in a diminutive scale on the right corner of the background is the couple embracing under trees.

Sanraedam’s print is made after an oil painting (private collection) by his contemporary Abraham Bloemaert, an influential Dutch artist often called the ‘father of the Utrecht school’. Rather than slavishly reproducing the original, however, this talented engraver made substantial changes to enrich its garden setting. Bloemaert collaborated with many printmakers, who were engaged in reproducing his artistic inventions, and his contemporaries considered Saenredam as one of the best. The Cornell’s Vertumnus and Pomona demonstrates this engraver’s incomparable skills in handling the burin (a tool with a sharp beveled point, used in engraving). By variegating lines and dots in black ink, he masterfully captures the effects of sunlight and shade that are characteristic of Bloemaert’s works, and creates tactile textures for all the different objects and figures, including Pomona’s soft, sunlit body.

Callot Inter

Jacques Callot (French, 1592–1635)
Third Intermezzo of “The Liberation of Tyrrhenus and Arnea,” 1617
Etching, 8 1/2 x 11 5/8 in.
Purchased with the Wally Findlay Acquisition Fund

Signature/Date/Inscription: “TERZO INTERMEDIO DOVE SI VIDE VENIRE AMORE CON TVTTA LA SVA CORTE A DIVIDER LA BATTAGLIA [Third Intermezzo Love Descending with All Her Court to End the Battle] / Iulluis Parigii Inu: lac: Callot delineavit et F.

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This etching by the most virtuosic French printmaker of the seventeenth century, Jacques Callot, is the final one of the three that form The Intermezzi series. Callot, who worked for the Medici court in Florence between 1614 and 1621, created this suite in 1617 to commemorate a special theatrical production of The Liberation of Tyrrhenus and Arnea at the Medici Theater housed in the Uffizi. In February of that year, with numerous festive events, Florence was celebrating a significant political alliance: the marriage of Caterina de’ Medici (1593–1629), a sister of the Grand Duke of Tuscany Cosimo II (1590–1621), to the Duke of Mantua, Ferdinando Gonzaga (1587–1626). The libretto loosely based on classical mythology and its accompanying music were written for the occasion, and the performance incorporated a courtly ballet and tournament, as well as musical interludes, called ‘intermezzi’ in Italian, which explains the title of Callot’s etching series.

Occupying a magnificent piazza in the foreground and middle-ground of the Third Intermezzo are a multitude of jousting soldiers, musicians, and singers. Seated on the clouds in the sky are the goddess of Love and her celestial entourage playing musical instruments; they have come to intervene the cavaliers’ fight, and the chorus chant, “No more war, no more violence!” The open curtain framing the scene in the immediate foreground gives us an illusion that we are the audience in the theater, looking at the performance on the stage with a spectacular scenographic vista. The symmetric piazza is surrounded by pairs of monumental Corinthian columns, followed by a rectangular building with a projecting loggia on each side. This grandiose classical architectural setting continues into the far distance and ends with an arched portico topped with statues. The Cornell’s Third Intermezzo testifies to Callot’s virtuosity in conveying a real sense of depth and an aerial perspective, all with varying tones of black ink alone.

The Intermezzi series by Callot is considered a significant visual document of early theater arts, and in particular, that of the now lost Medici Theater, Florence’s first permanent theater that opened in 1586.


François Collignon (French, c. 1610–1687)
Two Dwarfs Dueling, c. 1630-35
Etching on paper, 4 x 5 1/2 in.
Gift of anonymous donor

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The small etching Two Dwarfs Dueling is ascribed to François Collignon, a French engraver who was highly successful in Paris and Rome as print-seller and publisher, more than as printmaker. His prints demonstrate the great influence of his teacher, Jacques Callot, as well as, of della Bella, although they do not rise to the artistic quality of either. Collignon had a particularly close working relationship with his more gifted friend della Bella, copying and publishing the latter’s works.

Two Dwarfs Dueling, one of Collignon’s four burlesque etchings that represent groups of little people, offers an intimate close-up view of two well-dressed dwarfs in duel, both armed with disproportionately large fencing swords. Along with a number of other prints and drawings with varying dwarf themes by Collignon’s contemporaries (including della Bella and Callot), this etching offers us a fascinating glimpse into the courtly culture and popular entertainment in seventeenth-century Europe. As most amply documented at the court of the Medici Grand Dukes in Florence, dwarf entertainers performed horse races, jousting tournaments, and masquerades to entertain the people during various public festivals, ranging from ducal weddings to carnivals. Dwarf characters were also often featured in literary works and theater pieces of the time, as the burlesque and giocoso (“jocular” in Italian) genres were being established in the seventeenth century. Collignon’s etching, which seems to mock chivalrous exercises, well reflects this lesser-known aspect of seventeenth-century European culture.  

Collot Sebastian

Jacques Callot (French, 1592–1635)
The Martyrdom of St. Sebastian, 1632–33 Etching and engraving, 6 1/4 x 12 3/4 in.  Second state/II
Purchased with the Jessie and Eugene Drey Foundation Endowment Fund

Signature/Inscription: Israël Silvestre ex[cudit]. cum privit Regis. Callot In[venit] et fec[it].

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After leaving Italy in 1621, Jacques Callot first moved to Paris and then returned to his hometown Nancy, the capital of the Duchy of Lorraine. In the early 1630s until his death in 1635, he created over six hundred prints with various religious themes, including The Martyrdom of St. Sebastian.

According to the traditional hagiography, St. Sebastian was martyred in Rome at the order of the emperor Diocletian (245–311). As depicted in this etching partly enhanced with an engraving technique, the saint was shot by archers, but miraculously survived (only to be beaten to death later). Since the Middle Ages, this excruciating ordeal by archers’ arrows was the subject chosen to represent Sebastian, a popular patron saint invoked against plague.

Particularly noteworthy about Callot’s rendition of the story is its unusual composition. Sebastian is pushed into the middle ground and rendered diminutively, while the two archers and onlookers loom large in silhouette in the foreground. Yet Callot’s placement of the saint at the brightly lit center of the composition effectively draws the viewer’s attention to his vulnerable, half-naked lithe body bound to the pole, with three arrows piercing his arm, chest, and leg. Behind the pole on the ground are more arrows that have missed him. A large crowd of Roman soldiers and spectators witnesses his public execution at a safe distance. This imaginary site of his martyrdom is almost theatrical, filled with Roman ruins, from which trees and vegetation are growing. Especially impressive is the crumbling, yet still majestic, amphitheater on the left. Farther in the distance, a splendid city rises above the horizon line, reminiscent of seventeenth-century Rome, where Callot had once worked.    

The artist’s choice of the subject matter can be interpreted in several different ways. As the plague was rampant in Lorraine in the 1630s, Callot may have responded to the print market demanding images of this anti-plague saint. In addition, during this era of intense religious conflicts, Lorraine was a stronghold of Catholicism, where Protestants were frequently executed in the public, as early Christians had been by Romans.  

At the bottom are two different signatures, one by the artist (“invented and made by Callot”) and the other by the French print publisher, Israël Silvestre (1621–1691) (“published by Israël Silvestre with the royal privilege”).

Van Ostade

Adriaen van Ostade (Dutch, 1610–1685)
The Couple Walking, c. 1638–1647
Etching on laid paper, 3 x 2 3/8 in.
Gift of the estate of Laura May Ripley


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Adriaen van Ostade was a painter and etcher active in Haarlem, and his specialty lay in genre scenes, that is, images of common people engaged in a variety of activities. Arnold Houbraken (1660–1719), a famous Dutch biographer of compatriot artists, aptly summarizes Van Ostade’s oeuvre in The Great Theater of Dutch Painters (1718): “Peasant dwellings, barns, stables, and especially interiors, with all their ramshackle belongings, inns and taverns, and everything that goes with them—he painted them all with such accuracy and skill as anyone before him. The figures, too, all dressed up and engaged in a range of activities, are so convincingly rustic and droll that one wonders how on earth he did it.”

The Couple Walking is an intimate view of a middle-aged, stocky peasant couple on the road, engrossed in a lively conversation, albeit in a rather bare setting. The woman tightly pulls one end of her hooded cloak (a type known as the vlieger or Huikje in Dutch and out of fashion by the time when this work was engraved) toward her belly; she gently touches her husband’s shoulder and talks to him. He, in return, leans toward her, turning and lowering his face, as if conversing with her. The couple’s body gestures, especially the way they wear their outer garments and the seemingly brisk pace of their walk, all hint at a wintry day in Holland. There is no specific narrative in this image.

This small etching showcases not only Van Ostade’s favorite subject matter, peasants, but also his etching skills and characteristic draftsmanship that are comparable to those of his better-known contemporary, Rembrandt (1606–1669). Van Ostade’s short, irregular etched lines are almost expressive, suggesting his quick, spontaneous pen work. His images of simple folks, as seen in the Cornell’s The Couple Walking, tend to depict the poor sympathetically and with good humor, rather than with a sense of satirical mockery and derision, an attitude that was typical in the Dutch society and art in earlier times.


Stefano della Bella (Italian, 1610-1664)
The Medici Vase, 1656
Etching on paper (state ii/ii), 12 x 10 3/4 in.
Purchased with the Wally Findlay Acquisition fund, 1991.08.PR
Signature/Date/Inscription: “ROMAE IN HORTIS MEDICAEIS VAS MARMOREVM EXIMIVM” at the bottom center; and on the bottom right, “SDBella f. MDCLVI”

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Stefano della Bella was a prolific Florentine etcher and draughtsman, active in Florence, Rome, and Paris. The Medici Vase is considered one of his finest prints, which della Bella’s contemporary and biographer of artists, Filippo Baldinucci (1625-1697) already praised in his Life of the Artists in 1681. As inscribed in Latin on the bottom margin, the artist created this work in Rome in 1656, representing a famous Greek marble vase that was in the Medici’s collection from the late sixteenth century and displayed in the garden of the Villa Medici on the Pincian Hill. Now known as the Medici Vase and located in the Uffizi Gallery in Florence, this five-foot-tall krater datable to the second half of the first century A.D. was one of the most celebrated and copied antique vases in Europe until the nineteenth century. Della Bella’s etching is often noted as the earliest, and most beautiful, visual record of the Medici Vase. This bell-shaped vase is decorated with acanthus leaves and a continuous narrative frieze comprising eight figures carved in high relief. The tradition dating back to the late sixteenth century identifies the mysterious scene on the frieze as the sacrificial story of Iphigenia. The three figures visible in della Bella’s representation are generally considered to be Iphigenia (crouching below the statue of Diana), her father Agamemnon, and Ulysses.  

As noteworthy as the vase in this print is the boy seated next to and sketching the monumental antique marble. He has been plausibly identified as the then fourteen-year-old heir to Ferdinando II de’ Medici (1610-1670; r. 1621-1670), later Grand Duke Cosimo III (1642-1723; r. 1670-1723). In the 1650s, della Bella was employed at the Medici court, and as the young prince’s drawing teacher, he accompanied Cosimo to Rome in 1656, the year when this etching was executed.

 European 16th–19th century Portraiture

Clouet Pourbus Slingeland van Loo Donat Lawrence Lavery
    Clouet          Pourbus        Slingeland      van Loo           Donat         Lawrence          Lavery
                    the Younger



Circle of Franςois Clouet (French, c. 1516–1572)
Portrait of King Charles IX of France, c. 1561
Oil on panel, 8 x 5 7/8 in.
Gift of the Myers Family, Mr. and Mrs. John C. Myers, Jr., R'42, and June Reinhold Myers, R'41

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François Clouet was the son and pupil of the artist Jean Clouet (c. 1485-1540 or 1541). Like his father, the younger Clouet was responsible for numerous portrait drawings of members of the Valois court in France. His portrait drawings were especially sought after by Catherine de' Medici, the wife of Henry II of France and mother of Francis II and Charles IX. Such was his popularity that François Clouet ran a large studio whose members closely followed his technique and style. Owing to this, there are numerous copies and works executed "in the style of," or, "by the circle of" François Clouet. In the Portrait of King Charles IX of France, c. 1561, the young ruler casts a sideward gaze out of the canvas refusing to meet the eyes of the viewer who, by necessity, is of a lower status. The king is dressed in the finest of fashions; his face expresses a stoic resolve as he purses his lips tightly in determination. The high status of the king is unquestioned. The attributes, or signs, of his station are clearly presented in this copy of the famous portrait by François Clouet: the soft velvet cap with exotic feather, the fur-lined jacket, and the gold chain of his royal medallion are intended to be 'read' by us as symbols of his royal identity. The Cornell Fine Arts Museum’s painting is a contemporary replica of the famous portrait now housed in the Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna. The ornate frame of the Cornell's version is thought to be original.


After Frans Pourbus the Younger (Flemish, 1569–1622)
Portrait of Marguerite de Valois, c. 1610
Oil on panel, 13 3/4 x 11 in.
Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Everett M. Myers in memory of John C. Myers, Sr.

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Marguerite de Valois, better known as Queen Margot, was the queen of France and Navarre. She was the daughter of King Henry II of France and Catherine de' Medici and as such was a Catholic. When she wed Henry, Protestant King of Navarre (and later Henry IV of France) in 1572, the marriage was intended as a symbol of peace between French Catholics and Protestants. Instead, it was in fact a prelude to the slaughter of Protestants on 24 August, St. Bartholomew's Day, six days after the nuptials. Frans Pourbus the Younger was a member of a family of Flemish artists. His early training probably was undertaken in his grandfather Pieter's studio. Like his father and grandfather, he seems to have specialized in portraits, group portraits, and the occasional religious subject. In 1609 he was invited to France by Elenora Gonzaga, the sister of Catherine de' Medici. He remained in France, painting many members of the royal court. While this painting is not believed to be by Pourbus himself, it is certainly in his style, with its slightly more relaxed feel. The iconography of this portrait is clear: the delicate lacework of the sitter’s bodice and collar as well as her pearl necklace leave little doubt that the portrait subject is an aristocrat. Marguerite de Valois is depicted from the chest up, and though not in strict profile, her torso and head are at an angle to the picture plane. This pose, common in portraiture of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, can be viewed as a variation on a much older form. Roman emperors after Julius Caesar were often depicted in profile in coinage. Thus, the pose of this queen links her visually with the great rulers of the ancient past.

 van Slingeland

Pieter Cornelisz. van Slingeland (Dutch, 1640–1691)
A Lady with Her Dog, 1691
Oil on panel, 6 1/2 x 5 3/8 in.
Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Everett M. Myers in memory of John C. Myers, Sr.

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The woman in this painting, dressed in the finest of seventeenth-century fashions, is not a portrayal of an actual personage. She is, rather, an embodiment of Vanitas, or "Vanity." She and her King Charles spaniel gaze adoringly at their reflections in a mirror resting on the table before them. As an allegory of vanity, notions of the transience of beauty and wealth are meant to be recalled. This genre of painting has a long lineage. Pictures of the goddess Venus at her toilette, usually attended by Cupid and sometimes a small dog, are predecessors of this work. In terms of iconography, a dog may sometimes function as a symbol of fidelity (hence the clichéd name "Fido" which has its roots in the same word), but here the well-bred canine is simply another ornamentation, along with the lady's fine pearls and expensive silks. Van Slingeland was born in Leyden in 1640. He studied with Gerrit Dou (1613-1675), who had been a pupil of Rembrandt. The attention to fine detail and balanced, forceful composition may be traced, through Dou, back to Rembrandt. Slingeland was held in high regard in Leyden; he was a member of the painters' guild and became its dean in the year of his death, 1691.

 van Loo

Louis Michel van Loo (French, 1707–1771)
La Comtesse de Beaufort, c. 1760
Oil on canvas, 50 x 40 in.
Gift of the Honorable Marilyn Logsdon Mennello, and Michael Mennello, in honor of Rollins College President Rita Bornstein

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This portrait by van Loo is an outstanding example of eighteenth-century French portraiture. Louis Michel van Loo was from a family of painters and is best known as the court painter to Philip V of Spain. In France, between 1760 and 1770, Van Loo not only painted King Louis XV but also every member of the royal family. While by today's standards the Comtesse appears to be rigid and formal, in the eighteenth century this would have been considered a rather informal portrait. Her right arm is casually placed on a plinth that supports a large, classical urn. The slenderness and grace of her arm is accentuated in this attitude. Her hair is pulled back in a simple style and lightly powdered. There is little in the way of ornamentation; her beauty is meant to stand alone. The background is suggestive of an expansive landscape though it is not precisely rendered. All attention is to be on the Comtesse. Of particular note in this painting is the luxurious dress the Comtesse is wearing. The portrayal of the latest fashions was an important component of portraiture for it was a key identifier of the subject's social status. By the eighteenth century, it was a common practice for a renowned artist to employ 'drapery painters' who specialized in the painting of fabric. If a drapery painter had been employed, then van Loo would have been responsible for the overall composition of the painting and important passages such as the face but would have left the decorative elements, in this case the dress, to the subordinate artist. However, it is difficult for scholars to discern the practices of individual studios in eighteenth-century France.



Johann Daniel Donat (Austrian, 1744–1830)
Portrait of a Gentleman, c. 1815
Pastel on paper, 15 1/4 x 12 in.
Gift of George Terry, Sr.

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Executed exquisitely in pastels on paper so as to give the appearance of an oil painting, this lovely portrait of an unknown gentleman dates from the early nineteenth century. The plain dress and black cravat suggest that the sitter may have been an academic, an attorney, a Protestant minister, or another similar professional. Born in Kloster Neuzelle (in Neuzelle-Lausitz), Austria, Donat studied at the Akademie in Vienna around 1762 with the portraitist (and director of the Akademie) Martin Meytens I (1695–1770), as well as with Franz Weirotter (1730–1771) and Jakob Mathias Schmutzer (1733–1811). Donat became a very successful conservative portraitist in Vienna. He must have known well the neoclassical work of Johann Baptist von Lampi I (1751–1830), professor at the Akademie in 1786 and the best known official portrait painter in Vienna. Although he painted a series of altarpieces for Hungarian churches, Donat gained a greater reputation for his highly effective portraits of contemporary writers, such as Ferenc Kazincky, and political figures, such as Count Esterhazy and Nikolaus Revai. Although Austrian, he became so popular in his adopted country that contemporary Hungarians considered him to be a painter of “the whole spirit of Hungary.” His self-portrait and many of his major portraits are today in the Museum of Fine Arts in Budapest.


Attributed to Thomas Lawrence (English, 1769–1830)
Portrait of Harriet Gordon, c. 1820
Oil on canvas, 35 1/2 x 27 1/2 in.
Gift of the Myers Family, Mr. and Mrs. John C. Myers, Jr., R'42, and June Reinhold Myers, R'41, in memory of John C. Myers, Sr.

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Thomas Lawrence became the most successful portrait painter in England during the Romantic period. His rapid success came very young, even though he was almost entirely self-taught. Commissioned in 1789, when he was nineteen, to paint Queen Charlotte, Lawrence by 1792 had succeeded Sir Joshua Reynolds (1723-1792) as painter to the king. His portraits reveal a directness of vision and a vivacity of handling that extended Reynolds' style. Fluid and brilliant brushwork typify Lawrence's best portraits, qualities we can observe in the head, neck, and left hand of the Cornell image. Our painting also exemplifies the artist’s darker and simpler late style of the 1820s. Lawrence had huge numbers of assistants and pupils, many of whom completed his numerous commissions. His best was a woman named Margaret Sarah Carpenter (1793-1872), the most successful and original of his followers. It is very possible that Carpenter painted the background, right shoulder, arm and hand of Harriet Gordon.


John Lavery (Irish, 1856–1941)
Anna Pavlova as a Bacchante, 1910
Oil on canvas, 77 x 55 1/4 in.
Bequest from the estate of Louise Ashforth, R'31

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Anna Pavlova, born in St. Petersburg, Russia, 1881, rose from her impoverished beginnings as the daughter of a laundress and a peasant to become the greatest ballerina of the first third of the twentieth century. Despite frail health, she was accepted into the Imperial School of Ballet in 1891 and quickly distinguished herself both artistically and academically. While still a student, she appeared on stage at the Maryinsky Theatre and was accepted into this company upon her graduation in 1899. She remained with the Maryinsky for ten years. In 1907, Pavlova was granted the first of several leaves of absence to appear throughout Europe. In April of 1910, Anna Pavlova made her London debut at the Palace Theatre dancing the role of a Bacchante in the ballet Bacchanale. This painting, probably painted in the same year, recalls this triumphant debut. Sir John Lavery was one of the preeminent portrait painters of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. He studied in Paris with Bouguereau, and like John Singer Sargent (1856-1925), who was also working in London, he tended toward a more informal, less posed type of portraiture. Anna Pavlova favored traditionalism in all aspects of ballet. Her importance is not found in the revolutionary reappraisal of the art form taking place during her life. Though she was considered by her contemporaries the greatest ballerina of her generation, her true legacy is that she traveled throughout the world, bringing the art of ballet to many who had never experienced it. It is estimated she traveled some 500,000 miles and gave thousands of performances, revealing her art to millions.

19th century French Academic Painting

Brion Daubigny  Vollon Monticelli Bouguereau  
   Brion            Daubigny         Vollon          Monticelli     Bouguereau


Gustave Brion (French, 1824–1877)
Wood Rafts on the Rhine, 1855
Oil on canvas, 54 x 85 in.
Gift of Allen C. and Joan E. Edgar, and David Dwight and Douglas Edgar

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This is an excellent example of French nineteenth-century Realism, a movement that rebelled against the idealized content of mythical and historical painting and turned, instead, to contemporary subjects. In 1851, Gustave Courbet (1819-1877) became the leading French Realist, creating a coherent and revolutionary movement through his massive compositions with great social consciousness. Wood Rafts on the Rhine River also shows a debt to Romanticism (the movement preceding Realism), especially to an 1819 work by the great Romantic painter Théodore Géricault (1791-1824), The Raft of the Medusa. The grim sky, muted colors, muscular figures, and triangular composition (formed by the barge, workmen, and poles) all recall The Raft of the Medusa, but with an added grittiness and naturalism. The artist Gustave Brion lived most of his life in Strasbourg on the Rhine. His Realistic works, of which this painting is very typical, exhibit a great sympathy for the workmen and farmers of Alsace-Lorraine. Brion exhibited this award-winning work, which helped to establish his reputation, in the Salon of 1855. It was engraved in 1856 by Jean-Pierre-Marie Jazet (1788-1871).


Charles François Daubigny (French, 1817–1878)
River Landscape, c. 1860
Oil on canvas, 12 1/2 x 17 3/8 in.
Gift of Lillian Rawlings

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Charles François Daubigny, who loved seventeenth-century Dutch landscape painting, became one of the most important landscape painters in mid-nineteenth-century France. Associated with the Barbizon School, Daubigny was an influence on the later Impressionists. He was also a friend of Honoré Daumier, who felt a kinship with the "impressionistic" techniques of the Barbizon artists. Daubigny was interested in the transitory aspects of nature, which he painted with quick brushstrokes, an approach that upset many contemporary art critics. He developed a naturalistic type of landscape painting, connecting the Romanticists with the more objective work of the Impressionists.


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This flower arrangement consists of large pink roses, white carnations, chrysanthemums, red poppies, and less easily identifiable red, purple, pink, and yellow flowers. Antoine Vollon, known as "the Chardin of his time," approached his many still-lifes straightforwardly, with a keen sensibility. The boldly executed composition reveals his trademark chiaroscuro. Vollon's color scale of muted reds and pure blacks and whites derives from his studies with Théodule Ribot (1823-1891), the noted French Realist who adopted a Spanish palette. Like Chardin (1699-1779), Vollon was best known during his lifetime for his virtuoso still-lifes. He was a friend of many of the Impressionists, particularly with Claude Monet.


Adolphe Monticelli (French, 1824–1886)
Femmes au Bois, c. 1878–1880
Oil on wood, 16 1/8 x 25 3/8 in.
Gift of the Myers family, Mr. and Mrs. John C. Myers, Jr., R'42 and June Reinhold Myers, R'41 in memory of Everett M. Myers

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The artist executed this oil painting rapidly on an unsized walnut panel, the grain of which shows through in several spots, acting as a warm middle tone for the composition. Although the subject here seems to be that of a French fête galante (an elegant outdoor party), the painting suggest rather that it is a colorful dream depicted in the loosest, most sketchy manner. Adolphe Monticelli was born in Marseilles. Although his ancestors hailed from the Piedmont region of Italy, his artistic forebears included the great Venetian painters of the Renaissance. From 1846 to 1849, he studied in Paris with Paul Delaroche (1797–1856), the noted history and portrait painter. His real master, however, was the Louvre, where he encountered the paintings of Giorgione, Titian, Veronese, Rembrandt, and Watteau, all of whom remained his lifelong “teachers.” However, his contemporaries Diaz de la Peña (1807–1876), Courbet (1819–1877), and Delacroix (1798–1863) also influenced his early work, the latter greatly admiring Monticelli’s output. To a large degree, Monticelli’s subjective art served as a link between the Romantics and the paintings of Van Gogh (1853–1890) and Gauguin (1848–1901), the Fauves, and the expressionists.


William-Adolphe Bouguereau (French, 1823–1905)
Tendres propos, 1901
Oil on canvas, 75 x 48 in.
Gift of the Myers family, Mr. and Mrs. John C. Myers, Jr., R'42 and June Reinhold Myers, R'41

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Bouguereau, perhaps better than any other artist, typifies the French Academic style of painting in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. His paintings are characterized by superb technique, harmonious composition, and elegance. His first lessons were with Louis Sage, a pupil of Jean-August-Dominique Ingres (1780-1867). Draughtsmanship and long, elegant lines are the qualities for which Ingres is renown, and these qualities are apparent in Bouguereau's work as well. Bouguereau was the recipient of an outstanding education, culminating at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris. He was awarded the Grand Prix de Rome in 1850, and in 1888 he was appointed a professor at the École des Beaux-Arts, Paris. Yet, his reputation as an artist has waxed and waned several times from the late nineteenth century to the present. Bouguereau's work tends to be sentimental and quasi-mythological in a neo-classical manner. Because of this, his work was considered passé by the end of the nineteenth century when critics, following Charles Baudelaire's charge, called for works of art that reflected everyday life. In contrast to Bouguereau's neo-classical refinement, we may consider Pablo Picasso's blue period subjects (1901-1903) of beggars and absinthe drinkers. When it came into the Cornell's collection, Tendres propos was known as "Innocence." However, research undertaken in the late 1990s for the catalogue raisonnée of Bouguereau revealed that in a sale of 1901 this painting was known by its current, and less-generic, title.

Bloomsbury Group

   Fry Sickert Bell Fry 
         Fry              Sickert             Bell               Fry



Roger Fry (English, 1866–1934)
Winter Landscape, 1912–1914
Oil on canvas mounted on board, 20 x 20 in.
Bequest of Kenneth Curry, Ph.D., R'32

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Roger Fry is best remembered today as an art critic. He was an early and tireless champion of Paul Cézanne (1839-1906), Edouard Manet (1832-1883), and various other artists who may be categorized as Post-Impressionists. In 1910, he mounted the influential exhibition Manet and the Post-Impressionists at the Grafton Galleries in London. In 1912 he followed up with another exhibition of avant-garde art. He almost single-handedly brought the most important and innovative artistic experimentation taking place on the Continent to the fairly parochial English audience. In Winter Landscape we see the dominant influence of the work of Paul Cézanne. Cézanne had brought a scientific discipline to his experimentation with form. He stressed that all of nature could be reduced to a pure vocabulary of cubes, spheres, and cones. In this picture, Fry has simplified each form to its discreet geometric components. The walls of a house become a rectangle, the roof a triangle, the chimney another rectangle, and so on. The resulting effect is the fracturing of forms and voids so associated with the mature work of Cézanne and exploited in the extreme by his disciples Picasso and Braque. This structural splitting also furthers a complex visual understanding of how objects relate to and interact with the space they inhabit. For Roger Fry and his friend and fellow Bloomsbury Group associate Clive Bell, art had to be approached from a purely formal standpoint. Fry's theories and tastes greatly influenced Bell when he came to write one of the founding documents of formalism, his book Art, 1914. For Fry and Bell, formal elements such as line, shape, color, and volume were the essential building blocks of great art.


Walter Richard Sickert (English, 1860–1942)
The Flag at Rowlandson House, Flown at the Coronation of George V, 1911
Oil on canvas, 24 x 20 in.
Bequest of Kenneth Curry, Ph.D., R'32

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It has been argued that Walter Richard Sickert was one of the most influential artists working in Britain in the twentieth century. He was primarily an influence on British figurative painters and is often referred to as a "painter's painter." Though born in Munich, he spent the majority of his life in Britain. The Flag at Rowlandson House depicts the location of Sickert's engraving and painting school in Camden Town, North London. Sickert opened his private school in 1910 and named the house in which it was located after the English draughtsman and caricaturist Thomas Rowlandson (1756 or 1757-1827), whom he greatly admired. George V was crowned on June 22, 1911, and the Union Jack would have been flown throughout the country as part of the festivities. Sickert spent much of his time in and around Camden Town, which was an economically deprived area of London. Early on he specialized in painting subjects that illustrated the gritty realities of this location. Some of his most famous paintings depict the interiors of the seedier music halls. Such subject matter, at the time, was considered unseemly, but now is seen to demonstrate the revolutionary nature of Sickert's artistic vision. In 1911, when this picture was painted, the artist was at the beginning of a reappraisal of his technique. Early in his career, Sickert had been an assistant to James MacNeill Whistler (1834-1903). From Whistler he had inherited a distaste for thickly layered paint, or impasto. Beginning around this time, Sickert experimented with ever thinner layers of paint. Here, there is only slight impasto evident in the upper left, giving texture to the foliage, and in the boards on the side of the house. In places, the paint is so thin that the weave of the canvas shows through. Eventually, Walter Richard Sickert would arrive at a technique in which he layered on dry paint, producing surfaces that are both thickly built up as well as smooth.


Vanessa Bell (English, 1879–1961)
Portrait of Mary St. John Hutchinson, 1915
Oil on canvas, 31 x 21 3/4 in.
Gift of Kenneth Curry, Ph.D., R'32

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Mary St. John Hutchinson (née Barnes) sat for both Duncan Grant and Vanessa Bell at 46 Gordon Square, the home that Vanessa Bell and Virginia Woolf had shared with their brothers Thoby and Adrian Stephen. Bell produced two portraits of St. John Hutchinson from this sitting; the other is now part of the Tate Britain collection. In all three portraits, the abstract background is similar, suggesting that Mrs. St. John Hutchinson sat before an abstract painting or Omega Workshops screen in the studio. The striking colors and intense presence of the sitter conveyed in the portrait mark this as one of Bell's best early paintings. The flatness of the picture plane, harsh juxtaposition of colors, and liberation of the veristic use of color all betray a strong influence of French Post-Impressionist art. As a leading member of the Bloomsbury Group, Vanessa Bell, like the other Bloomsbury artists, was powerfully influenced by Roger Fry's two Post-Impressionist exhibitions (1910 and 1912) that had shaken the London art world to its foundation. Vanessa's husband, Clive Bell, published the important text Art in 1914, in which he argued for a purely formal approach to the understanding and appreciation of art. For Clive Bell, "significant form," defined as line, color, and form, combined in particular ways within a work of art to produce the "aesthetic emotion." In this portrait, Vanessa Bell seems to have line, color, and form in the forefront of her mind. Mary St. John Hutchinson was a very wealthy socialite who mixed with the highest society. However, she was herself quite brilliant and seemed to enjoy the intellectual engagement of the more bohemian Bloomsbury artists and intellectuals. She was an important patron of the Omega Workshops, and Vanessa Bell and Duncan Grant were called on several times to decorate her successive residences. Bell has captured a certain cunning in this portrait that is not entirely flattering. This point-of-view may have come out of the fact that Mary St. John Hutchinson was the mistress of Vanessa's husband, Clive.


Roger Fry (English, 1866–1934)
Saint Agnes, 1921
Woodcut, 5 x 3 1/2 in.
Purchased with the Kenneth Curry Acquisition Fund

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This woodcut appears as Plate V in Roger Fry’s Twelve Original Woodcuts, a book published by the Hogarth Press in 1921. Leonard and Virginia Woolf printed each of the volume’s illustrations by hand. The first edition of 150 copies sold very quickly and the press subsequently released two small editions soon thereafter. This image relates to Fry’s painting, Figure Resting under a Tree, St. Agnes (1915), created during a visit to southern France. Pippa Strachey, an acquaintance of the artist, served as the recumbent model.

 American 18th–19th century Portraiture

Stuart Alexander  Sully Healy Elliot Elliot Alexander
    Stuart          Alexander          Sully             Healy            Elliot            Elliot           Alexander



Gilbert Stuart (American, 1755–1828)
Portrait of Sir William Conyngham, c. 1795
Oil on canvas, 36 x 28 in.
Gift of Mary Manning Cleveland and Robert Gran Cleveland, R'32

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Though the subject of this likeness is Irish, not American, the artist responsible for this work, Gilbert Stuart, is among the best of American portraitists and is known especially for his depictions of George Washington. Born in Rhode Islandhe traveled to London in 1775 to study with Benjamin West (1738-1820). While there, Stuart was also influenced by the great English painters Thomas Gainsborough and Joshua Reynolds. In 1789 after establishing his reputation in London, he moved to Ireland where this portrait was completed. Conyngham was a noted Irish parliamentarian, Teller of the Exchequer, and an antiquarian. After the death of his uncle, the first Earl Conyngham, the Earl's estate was divided equally among his nephews Francis (who became the new Earl Conyngham) and William. Having a keen interest in architecture, William employed the architect James Wyatt for a new addition to the family seat, Slane Castle. Wyatt was to become a pioneer in the "Gothic Revival" style. Wyatt began an extensive rebuilding of the castle in 1785 following the suggestions of James Gandon, another architect of renown. The Cornell's portrait is one of four copies--or replicas--of Stuart's work. Subjects would often ask for replicas of a portrait, if they found it favorable, so that it might be sent to relatives or placed in multiple residences. Behind Conyngham are two books. The first is a copy of Grose's Antiquities of Ireland; this is fitting as Conyngham himself was a noted antiquarian and had lectured before the Royal Irish Academy on the theatre at Saguntum (near Valencia). Conyngham is mentioned in the preface to the first volume. This text did not appear until 1795, the year before Conyngham's death, dating this portrait to 1795-1796. The second volume found in this portrait is a copy of Observations on Man, His Frame, His Duty, and His Expectations written by David Hartley and published in 1749. Hartley's text combines themes of philosophy, physiology, and religion. Joseph Priestly, the discoverer of oxygen, felt Hartley's work ushered in a new era of science. The inclusion of these volumes in Stuart's painting attest to the varied interests of the learned William Burton Conyngham.

 Mary Ann Duff

Francis Alexander (American, 1899–1880)
Portrait of Mary Ann Duff, 1825
Oil on canvas, 30 1/4 x 24 in.
Gift of Dr. and Mrs. DeWitt Allen Green

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Francis Alexander was only twenty-five when he painted Mary Ann Duff. At the peak of her career, Duff was considered as fine a tragic actress as the earlier renowned English actress Sarah Siddons (immortalized as the "Tragic Muse" by Sir Joshua Reynolds in 1783). Though born in England and first appearing on stage as a dancer in Ireland, Duff was thirty and living in New York when this painting was completed. Largely forgotten now, it has been argued that Duff should rightly be considered the first First Lady of the American Stage, having received her theatrical training solely in America. This painting predates Alexander's travels in Europe, where he would study the great monuments of art and refine his technique. Though produced early in his career in an almost naïf style, Alexander’s likeness captures the vivacious nature of the actress as she looks out of the canvas with sparkling eyes and rosy cheeks. Great care has been taken in rendering the texture and patterning of the drapery that covers her chair and falls over and around her arm. Mary Ann Duff would have been conscious of her rising status on the American stage. A portrait such as this might have been commissioned in a self-conscious attempt at mimicking the habits of respectable American society. Remembering that actors in the nineteenth century were not accorded the high social status in America that they enjoy today, Miss Duff would have been eager to present herself as a reputable lady of society. Her apparel raises more questions than it answers. She appears to be wearing a scholar's cap, and the high, starched, lace collar is not in keeping with contemporaneous fashions. It is possible that she has chosen to be portrayed in the costume of a favorite character. Unfortunately, there is little in the way of records for this important personage of American theatrical history.


Thomas Sully (American, 1783–1872)
Portrait of Lieutenant William Henry Korn, 1841
Oil on canvas, 29 x 45 1/2 in.
Gift of Dr. William Henry Fox

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William Henry Korn was born into a prominent Philadelphia merchant family in 1814. He was a graduate of West Point and fought in the Seminole War in Florida, 1839-1840. He resigned from the military in March of 1840 after a brief career and returned to Philadelphia to work in the family business. This portrait was painted by the pre-eminent Philadelphia portraitist Thomas Sully, a close friend of Korn's father. Sully was born in England but had come to Charleston, South Carolina, at an early age with his parents. He first studied art with his older brother, Lawrence, who was a miniaturist. Sully then benefited from the instruction of several superb painters. In 1807 he briefly studied with Gilbert Stuart in Boston; then in 1809 he traveled to London to study with Benjamin West and Sir Thomas Lawrence. From Lawrence he learned to paint in the "grand style" of Sir Joshua Reynolds. When he returned to America in 1810, Sully was proclaimed the "American Lawrence." This portrait, painted in 1841, was completed during the height of Sully's powers. Lt. Korn looks intently past the viewer off into the distance. He has just resigned from the military and is symbolically and literally looking toward a prosperous career in business. Sully is able to capture the forcefulness of the young man's personality while retaining the casual elegance of youth. The gentle sweep of the hair is echoed in the loose treatment of his cravat. The skin has the blush of vigor. Yet, it is sadly ironic that this portrait illustrating the promise of a long and successful life is completed only a year before Korn's premature death at the age of twenty-eight.


Attributed to George Peter Alexander Healy (American, 1813–1894)
Portrait of the Reverend Wyllys Warner, 1842–1844
Oil on panel, 31 x 24 3/4 in.
Gift of James Gamble Rogers II

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Originally this portrait was thought to have been painted by the American painter George Peter Alexander Healy (1813-1894). This belief was based on the family tradition of the original owners. However, this attribution has been questioned by some scholars who feel that Healy would have been too young at the time to have painted such a fine portrait. Experts from the Vose Gallery in Boston and the National Portrait Gallery in Washington have suggested that the painting may have been done by the portraitists Chester Harding (1792-1866) or Samuel Waldo (1783-1861). The date of the painting is also difficult to determine with certainty. If the painting was completed as a companion to the portrait of the Reverend Warner's second wife, Elizabeth Warner, née Hart (also in the Cornell's collection), the date of c. 1840s would be appropriate. However, the Reverend Warner was first married to Elizabeth Hazard (d.1831) in 1829. It has been suggested that the Reverend Warner's attire is more in keeping with the fashions of the 1820s or 1830s, and it would have been common to have a portrait commissioned to celebrate a marriage. While it may seem odd that the Reverend Warner is depicted holding a bookkeeping ledger rather than a Bible, this attribute is in keeping with his position. A graduate of Yale Theological Seminary, Warner was made Treasurer of the college in 1832. The donor of this painting (and its companion piece), James Gamble Rogers II, was the great-grandson of the Reverend and Mrs. Warner. James Gamble Rogers II, a Winter Park architect, designed many of the buildings on the Rollins College campus including the Thomas Phillips Johnson Student Resource Center, Olin Library, McKean Hall, and Elizabeth Hall.


Charles Loring Elliott (American, 1812–1868)
Portrait of Melinda Wilkins Furman, c. 1845
Oil on canvas, 34 1/4 x 27 1/4 in.
Bequest of the estate of John Martin

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This likeness of Melinda Wilkins Furman is an excellent example of mid-nineteenth-century American portraiture. The austerity of the setting befits the wife of a Protestant minister. The focus of the portrait is the sitter’s finely painted face. She looks out with kind, meek eyes. Faint lines of experience are seen on her forehead and around her mouth. Her dress is of very good quality without being ostentatious. Her husband, the Reverend Robert Furman, was associated with the abolitionist movement. The Furmans resided in Syracuse, New York, and this fine portrait has been attributed to Charles Loring Elliott, who was also from Syracuse. Elliot left Syracuse to live in New York City in order to become a respected artist around 1830, only to return to Syracuse six months later. Undeterred, he continued working as a portraitist and by 1845 had been declared the best American portraitist since Gilbert Stuart. It was estimated in 1867 that he had painted over seven hundred portraits. This picture came to Rollins College from the estate of Dr. John Martin, whose wife, Prestonia Mann Martin, was the granddaughter of the Furmans. Mrs. Martin carried on her family's forward-thinking ways. She was involved in the American Fabian Society, a socialist group modeled on the British Fabian Society, which argued that socialism should be advanced through gradual reformist measures rather than by revolutionary means. For a time, she was involved in the founding of a utopian community near North Elba, New York. She also authored a book, Prohibiting Poverty (1933), in which she argued that the necessary toils of life should be turned over to a conscript army made up of 18-26 year olds. After their own period of service, the people of this society were free to live secure in the knowledge that their needs would be met by the conscripts.


Charles Loring Elliot (American, 1812–1868)
Portrait of the Reverend Robert Furman,
c. 1850–1870
Oil on canvas, 34 1/8 x 27 1/8 in.
Bequest of the estate of John Martin

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The Reverend Robert Furman was a Protestant minister and was associated with the abolitionist movement. He resided in Syracuse, New York, and this fine portrait has been attributed to Charles Loring Elliott, who was also from Syracuse. Elliot left Syracuse to live in New York City in order to become a respected artist around 1830, only to return to Syracuse six months later. Undeterred, he continued working as a portraitist and by 1845 had been declared the best American portraitist since Gilbert Stuart. It was estimated in 1867 that he had painted over seven hundred portraits. This picture came to Rollins College from the estate of Dr. John Martin, whose wife, Prestonia Mann Martin, was the granddaughter of the Furmans. Mrs. Martin carried on her family's forward-thinking ways. She was involved in the American Fabian Society, a socialist group modeled on the British Fabian Society, which argued that socialism should be advanced through gradual reformist measures rather than by revolutionary means. For a time, she was involved in the founding of a utopian community near North Elba, New York. She also authored a book, Prohibiting Poverty (1933), in which she argued that the necessary toils of life should be turned over to a conscript army made up of 18-26 year olds. After their own period of service, the people of this society were free to live secure in the knowledge that their needs would be met by the conscripts.


John White Alexander,(American, 1856–1915)
Portrait of Annie Russell, c. 1900
Oil on canvas, 72 x 44 1/2 in.
Gift of John Russell Carty (1892–1949), nephew of Annie Russell

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Anyone familiar with Rollins College will know that Annie Russell is honored with a theatre bearing her name. Miss Russell retired to Winter Park in 1930 after a long and distinguished career on the stage. In 1932 the Annie Russell Theatre was given to Rollins College by Mary Louise Bok in honor of her close friend. Annie Russell directed many plays on campus and passed her wisdom on to numerous students until her death in 1936. The portraitist responsible for Portrait of Annie Russell, John White Alexander, was a well-known American artist. In 1877, at the age of twenty, Alexander traveled to Europe and studied with Frank Duveneck (1848-1919) in Munich. John White Alexander agreed with those artists of the late nineteenth century who advocated, "art for art's sake." When he returned to America in 1881, he settled in New York where he found support for his style. He painted a number of famous people; his portrait of Walt Whitman now hangs in the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Alexander preferred to use a coarsely woven canvas that created a matte effect giving tonal unity to the composition. This type of canvas is now known as toile Alexander. Annie Russell is portrayed here as Lady Vavir, a character in the "fairy play" Broken Hearts, written by Sir Arthur Sullivan of Gilbert & Sullivan renown. Miss Russell became famous for her portrayal of ingénue roles. She played so many ingénues she came to call them "Annie-genues." Broken Hearts premiered in New York in 1885 when Annie Russell would have been 21. Perhaps her greatest theatrical achievement was originating the title role of Barbara Undershaft in the London production of George Bernard Shaw's Major Barbara. Though she was not the playwright's first choice, Shaw remarked that Russell played the role, "excellently in a really touching intimate way with sincere feeling and sympathy." 

American 19th century Landscapes

Hart JD Hart Kensett Bierstadt Sonntag McEntee Ryder 
   WM Hart         JM Hart         Kensett         Bierstadt        Sonntag         McEntee          Ryder        

Enneking Herzog Richards Moran
  Enneking         Herzog           Richards           Moran



William M. Hart (American, 1823–1894)
Landscape, c. 1850
Oil on composition board, 8 1/4 x 10 1/4 in.
Gift of Samuel B. and Marion W. Lawrence

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At the age of six, William M. Hart immigrated to America with his family from Paisley, Scotland, near Glasgow, a town famed for the paisley shawl and other textiles. The family settled in Albany, New York, and Hart began his career as an ornamental painter of carriages. He left Albany in 1849 and traveled throughout the United States, painting portraits and landscapes in New York, Virginia, and Michigan, where he spent three years. William Hart worked in the style of Asher B. Durand, although his work lacked Durand's monumentality. According to the style of the day, Hart blended the real and the ideal to give an atmosphere of peace and serenity, and his contemporaries spoke of his ability to be "faithful to nature" and yet convey "a poetic sentiment." Hart's paintings were popularized as engravings in nineteenth-century gift books and art journals. The artist moved to New York City in 1852 and eventually gained studio space in the famed Tenth Street Studio Building where Albert Bierstadt, Frederic Edwin Church, Worthington Whittredge, and Winslow Homer also painted. Hart was a member of the National Academy of Design, the first President of the Brooklyn Academy of Design, and a founder of the American Watercolor Society. William M. Hart's landscapes are in the collections of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, and the Philadelphia Museum of Art, among others.

JM Hart Landscape

James McDougal Hart (American, 1828–1901)
Summer Landscape, 1857
Oil on canvas, 12 1/4 x 8 1/4 in.
Purchased with the Roux Acquisitions Fund

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"I strive to reproduce the feelings produced by the original scenes themselves...," so wrote James McDougal Hart, whose work typically portrays idyllic scenes of New England through precise features of flora, fauna, and atmosphere. Shaped by the aesthetic ideology of British art critic John Ruskin (1819-1900), an emphasis to represent "truth in nature" was paramount in mid-nineteenth century American scene painting. As such, James Hart's work pays homage to the idealism of Thomas Cole and the realism of Asher B. Durand. The Cornell's Summer Landscape is a charming, meticulously detailed scene that quietly captures the feeling of a mid-summer's day. The sound from a lone, passing duck at the pond's edge and smell of exposed earth and tangle of plant life are evoked in this intimate snapshot of unnamed America. Hart's keen juxtaposition of light and dark vividly contrasts both the heat of the day and the cool relief of this shady, verdant lair. The artist clearly designed Summer Landscape to correspond to the unusual shape of the ornate gilded frame where the branches of the tree fill the arch opening of the frame and repeat its general shape. This format is reminiscent of Renaissance altarpieces, which in some way may have been intended by Hart to invoke a reverent meditation upon the beauty of nature. James McDougal Hart was distinguished as an elected Academician of the National Academy of Design, and his work is represented in the collections of the Brooklyn Museum, the Art Institute of Chicago, and the Metropolitan Museum of Art, among other public and private collections.


John Frederick Kensett (American, 1816–1872)
The Langdale Pike, 1858
Oil on canvas, 22 1/4 x 36 in.
Gift of Madame Charlotte Gero

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John Frederick Kensett, who was a founding member of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, is considered one of the masters of nineteenth-century American landscape painting. He was born in Cheshire, Connecticut, and received his early artistic training as a fine art engraver, working in print shops in New York City, New Haven, and Albany. By 1840, at the age of 24, Kensett had grown restless with the engraver's trade. Influenced by the then current master of American landscape painting, Asher B. Durand, and another engraver-turned-artist, John Casilear, Kensett turned to oil painting. The same year, he embarked for Europe with Durand and Casilear, and traveled widely for the next seven years. While living in Europe, Kensett studied the landscape paintings of John Constable and J.M.W. Turner at the National Gallery, London, Claude Lorrain at the Musée du Louvre, and routinely sketched en plein air at Windsor Castle, Hampton Court, and England's Lake Region, where the Cornell's The Langdale Pikes was composed. This painting presages some of Kensett's major landscapes of the 1860s, including his acknowledged masterpiece Lake George, 1869 (Metropolitan Museum of Art), in which the composition has been virtually reversed. Upon his return to the United States in 1847, and perhaps due to the fact that he had sent several paintings back to New York City during his seven year sojourn abroad, Kensett met with almost instant success. John Frederick Kensett's contribution to the American landscape genre consists of capturing a "sweet calm" in asymmetrical, reductive compositions created from a subdued or near monochromatic palette. He reinvented the artist's 'touch' of light upon a spare--what one would now call 'minimal'--setting. This approach comprised the artist's 1872 series of close to forty paintings known as the 'Last Summer's Work.' Kensett's final round of paintings importantly prefigures the atmospheric abstractions of Mark Rothko, Milton Avery, and Barnett Newman in the 1950s and 1960s.


Albert Bierstadt (American, 1830–1902)
Shoshone Indians—Rocky Mountains, 1859
Oil and gouache on paper mounted on board, 5 x 7 5/16 in.
Gift of Samuel B. and Marion W. Lawrence

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In 1859, at the age of 29, Albert Bierstadt traveled with Colonel Frederick W. Lander's wagon train through the Rocky Mountains in search of a pass for the Pacific Railroad. This arduous journey was made possible by the unparalleled efforts of Captains Meriwether Lewis and William Clark, who half a century earlier had forged their way across the western territories. With the aid of the Shoshone woman, Sacagawea, and her French husband, Jean-Baptiste Charbonneau--who were in effect an "interpreter team"--the Shoshone tribe became amenable to white men. Traveling as far as the Continental Divide, Bierstadt made many quick studies over the ensuing five months of his first western expedition. His facile brushwork, seen in the Cornell Shoshone Indians--Rocky Mountains, masterfully communicates the nuances of the setting: a distant rain storm, a breeze in the treetops, the ripple of water, and a Shoshone encampment. The artist created probing studies of individual Indians during the 1859 trek, but in the landscape scenes he tended to greatly simplify outward appearances and activities. A generalized presence of the Indians, rather than focused and particular physiognomic and cultural details, echoed the style of his earlier European subjects. This vagueness ensured a mystery, if not romanticization, of these peoples, especially to the Bostonians and New Yorkers, who would be the first viewers of Bierstadt's western pictures. The artist returned from the west to his home in New Bedford, Massachusetts, on September 18, 1859. By November he had moved his studio to New York City. And, by May, with successes mounting, and admiration from his fellow artists firmly in place, Albert Bierstadt was elected a full Academician of the National Academy of Design.


William Louis Sonntag (American 1822–1900)
Dream of Italy, c. 1860
Oil on canvas, 26 1/4 x 41 1/8 in.
Gift of George H. Sullivan

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A native of East Liberty, Pennsylvania, near Pittsburgh, William Louis Sonntag belongs to the Hudson River School of landscape painting. The Italian landscape, which was always on the traditional grand tour of Europe, engaged a number of nineteenth-century American artists. Like John Frederick Kensett, Asher B. Durand, Frederic Edwin Church, and Worthington Whittredge, William Louis Sonntag was influenced by the great American artist, Thomas Cole, whose historicist perspective paid homage to the seventeenth-century landscapes of Claude Lorrain and Salvator Rosa. Emblematic of the idealized, classical landscapes of Hudson River School artists is the Cornell's Dream of Italy. The painting dramatizes the ruins of a Roman temple and neighboring Romanesque church and aqueduct against a honeyed, paradisiacal backdrop of land and sky. Italian life, as experienced by nineteenth-century Americans, was tantamount to a release from the pressure of life. In a milieu of golden reverie, the 'spirit' could move freely, mortality could be indulged and relieved by sentiment, and burning socio-political matters (such as the North/South conflict over slavery) could be put on hold in what seemed like an environment of cultural perfection and timelessness. Not surprisingly, American nationalism, or patriotism, ultimately triumphed with the expatriate landscapists. The American countryside--from the Adirondacks, White Mountains, Long Island, Rhode Island, Yosemite, the Sierra Nevadas, and Rocky Mountains--symbolized America's sacred destiny for these artists. Even Thomas Cole, perhaps more than any other American torn between natural antiquity and cultivated antiquity, had found it necessary to restate his allegiance to the sublime beauty of the Catskills Mountains. Sonntag's Dream of Italy was painted after the artist's return from Florence in 1856. It was exhibited at the Dusseldorf Galleries in New York in 1859, and translated into an engraving which was popularized during the period. The painting was reviewed in the New York Times, November 24, 1859, and is among the artist's most important Italianate pictures, the others being at the Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington, DC,  and the Hood Museum of Art at Dartmouth College.


Jervis McEntee (American 1828–1891)
Landscape, 1861
Oil on canvas, 9 5/8 x 7 5/8 in.
Purchased by Rollins College

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Jervis McEntee is a somewhat lesser-known figure of the nineteenth-century American art world, but his particular type of landscape painting is distinguished. McEntee was born in Rondout, New York in 1828, and by age 22, he had exhibited his first painting at the National Academy of Design in New York City. The following year, 1851, he apprenticed with Frederic Edwin Church, who was then regarded as a rising star in the American art world. The landscapes of Jervis McEntee are known for their melancholic and poetic sentiment. Skies are often cloudy, and the season that is most often depicted is autumn. While Jasper Cropsey and other artists typically painted bright fall scenes, McEntee portrayed the season near its end. "Some people call my landscapes gloomy and disagreeable," he wrote in his journal. "They say I paint the sorrowful side of nature...but this is a mistake.... Nature is not sad to me but quiet, pensive, restful." Aside from his paintings, McEntee's enduring legacy is an extraordinary, five volume, personal diary (1872-1890) that includes nearly 4,500 entries. The diary contains a rich and detailed account of his friends Edwin Booth (actor), William Cullen Bryant (poet and editor), Frederick Edwin Church (his teacher), Sanford Gifford, Worthington Whittredge, Eastman Johnson, John F. Kensett (Hudson River School artists), and Frederick Law Olmstead (landscape architect), the art market, the famous Tenth Street Studio Building, and the impact of European painting on American art. Jervis McEntee's journal is housed in the Archives of American Art at the Smithsonian Institution and is available online.


Albert Pinkham Ryder (American, 1857–1917)
Landscape with Sheep, c. 1870
Oil on panel, 7 3/4 x 9 7/8 in.
Gift of Alastair Bradley Martin

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Albert Pinkham Ryder was a most eccentric artist both in personality and technique. Born in New Bedford, Massachusetts in 1847, he moved with his family to New York City when he was twenty-three. He would spend most of his years living a relatively secluded, bohemian existence in the artistic enclave of Greenwich Village. Toward the end of his life he worked, ate, and slept in his studio. His friends remarked that he rarely threw anything away and that his studio was filled with every kind of flotsam and jetsam imaginable. To the consternation of his collectors, he often worked on paintings for years scraping and repainting canvases numerous times striving for an elusive vision. Ryder was known to incorporate non-traditional media into his paintings, such as boot black, candle wax, coal dust, etc., attempting to create luminous, multi-dimensional surfaces. These ingredients, coupled with the fact that he often would not let one layer of paint dry before applying the next layer, contribute to the overwhelmingly sad condition the majority of Ryder's paintings exist in today. This intimate landscape is reminiscent of the style of the French Barbizon School which was active c. 1830-1870. The muted hues and simple composition tie it to that aesthetic. Yet, because of his muted tonal palette, general lack of fine detail, and excessive layering of paint, his works were easily and voluminously forged. In the last years of his life, Ryder, who had been largely obscure, became increasingly popular.


John Joseph Enneking (American, 1841–1916)
Eventide, 1877
Oil on canvas, 12 x 18 in.
Gift of Romano and Mariolina Salvatori

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At Mount St. Mary's College in Cincinnati, John Joseph Enneking took his first art lessons, which were interrupted due to his enlistment in the Union Army during the Civil War. Enneking was severely wounded in battle, was discharged from service, and eventually made his way to Boston to continue his studies. After years of repeated struggle, his painting finally met with success, so that when he sailed for Europe in 1872, his career as an artist had been assured. Once installed in Paris, he studied with the figure painter Léon Bonnat, and alongside the impressionists Renoir, Monet, and Pissarro. John Enneking's closest allies in Europe were the Barbizon painters Camille Corot, Jean-François Millet, and Claude Daubigny, with whom he studied from 1873-1876. Enneking returned to Boston for America's first centennial and thereafter exhibited paintings at the 1893 Columbia World's Fair, the 1900 Paris Exposition, the 1901 Pan American Exposition in Buffalo, New York, and the 1915 World's Fairs in St. Louis and San Francisco. John Joseph Enneking's work from the late 1870's, as seen in the Cornell's Eventide, is a precursor of a phenomenon in nineteenth-century American painting known as Tonalism. This "style" was chiefly manifested in landscapes, which were painted in near monochromatic colors with a hazy application that served to obscure the reality of the subject. Tonalism was influenced by two major branches of European art: the French Barbizon school, and Aestheticism, exemplified in the works of James McNeill Whistler. The understated color, or virtual absence of color in tonalist painting, appealed to turn-of-the-century photographers seeking to assert the legitimacy of that medium. The soft-focused photographs of Edward Steichen, Alfred Stieglitz, and Clarence White, liberally incorporated Tonalist aesthetics.


Hermann Herzog (German, active in the United States, 1831–1932)
Sunset with Elk, c. 1880
Oil on canvas, 11 5/8 x 17 1/2 in.
Gift of Samuel B. and Marion W. Lawrence, in honor of Prsident Thaddeus Seymour

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The centenarian Hermann Herzog came to the United States from the German free state of Bremen in 1869. During the late 1850s and early 1860s, Herzog's fame as an accomplished landscape painter spread throughout Europe. While exhibiting in the Paris Salons of 1863 and 1864, it is believed that Herzog came into contact with the popular Barbizon School, whose adherents romanticized the grandeur and beauty of nature through precise attention to detail, atmospheric mood, and dramatic color. This sentiment is evident in the Cornell's Sunset with Elk. Herzog's works of art were collected for their dynamic realism, and among his patrons were several of Europe's royal families, including Queen Victoria of England and Tsar Alexander II of Russia. It is not known exactly when Herzog decided to come to America, but at some point in the late 1860s he left Europe and settled in Philadelphia. Besides wanting to develop a market for his work, Herzog left Bremen due to rising political agitation by Prussia, which had just absorbed Bremen, the smallest state of Germany, into its domain. In America, Herzog continued to paint romantic landscapes during painting excursions in Pennsylvania, and up the Hudson River (1871). In 1873 he traveled west to Yosemite, Wyoming, Oregon, and along the west coast of California to Coronado Island, near what is now San Diego. Hermann Herzog became well-known for his depictions of Yosemite, receiving great acclaim for his version of El Capitan, Yosemite, famously depicted by Albert Bierstadt and others. Herzog's last trip west was in 1905 at the age of 74. As Herzog grew older, he continued to paint actively even into his one hundredth year. 


William Trost Richards (American 1833–1905)
New Jersey Seascape—Atlantic City, c. 1880–1890
Oil on canvas mounted on board, 9 1/4 x 16 1/2 in.
Gift of Samuel B. and Marion W. Lawrence in honor of Joan Wavell, former director of the Cornell Fine Arts Museum

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Born in Philadelphia, but educated in Florence, Rome, and Paris, William Trost Richards embraced John Ruskin's doctrine of absolute truth to nature. Noted as an accomplished landscape artist, especially with a series of brilliant Adirondack paintings, by 1867 he had turned his attention to the sea. Summertime excursions in the mid-1860s show a careful documentation of nature in his drawings of Nantucket, the Isles of Shoals in New Hampshire, and Mount Desert, Maine. Richards' coastal excursions seem to have stimulated the regular use of watercolor, and the extraordinary body of paintings that he produced in the 1870s demonstrated a confidence that was not only critical to his success, but which helped lift the watercolor medium to a higher prominence. Richards' luminous and highly realistic paintings of the American northeastern coastline, such as the Cornell's New Jersey Seascape--Atlantic City, became the primary focus of his output in the mid -1870s. Although most of his paintings are on the whole, intimate, they are "fearless in scale," exhibiting in a ten-inch panorama, for example, sweeping miles of rugged coastline. Following a lengthy trip to England in 1878--where Richards expanded his repertoire of sea paintings with excursions along the coasts of Cornwall, Devon, and Dorset--his latter career was firmly established as one of the leading coastal and marine painters in America.


Thomas Moran (American, 1837-1926)
Moonlight Seascape, 1892
Oil on canvas, 18 in. x 23 1/4 in. (45.72 cm x 59.06 cm)
Gift of Samuel B. and Marion W. Lawrence in honor of Associate Vice President, M. Elizabeth Brothers, H'89

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Thomas Moran was the son of a hand-loom weaver whose life had been irrevocably changed by the advent of the Industrial Revolution. Displaced by labor-saving machinery, Thomas Moran, Sr. immigrated to America in 1844 and settled his family in Kensington, Pennsylvania (near Philadelphia). During the 1860s Thomas and his brother Edward undertook numerous sketching trips in the forests surrounding Philadelphia. The studio paintings that resulted from these excursions reflect the influence of the American Pre-Raphaelites whose fascination with the natural world generated extraordinarily detailed landscape studies. Of even greater importance to the young Thomas Moran was the work of England's foremost landscape painter, J. M. W. Turner, whose art Moran had studied primarily through prints and engravings. Eager to see Turner's atmospheric landscapes with their own eyes, the Moran brothers traveled to England in 1862, and devotedly followed his sketching route along the English coast. Thomas Moran is best known for his extraordinary, panoramic depictions of America's west. He was a master of both oil and watercolor mediums, capturing some of the most memorable scenes of the Grand Canyon and Yellowstone to have ever been painted. While Moran enjoyed great critical and commercial success from his western landscapes, he also found inspiration in other subjects. In the 1880s his long-time enthusiasm for marine painting grew stronger and he moved to East Hampton, Long Island, so that he could study the light and feel the atmosphere of the sea, day and night. The Cornell's Moran depicts a full moon over the ocean, at near dusk, punctuated by the white of gull wings, sails and lighthouse beam.


Early American Modernism

Hassam Noyes  Davies Henri Lie Lawson Chase
   Hassam          Noyes            Davies           Henri              Lie              Lawson          Chase 


Childe Hassam (American, 1859–1935)
Ironbound, 1896
Oil on canvas, 30 x 25 in.
Gift of Laura and Sugurd Hersloff in memory of their father, Nils Hersloff

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Childe Hassam studied at the Académie Julian in Paris from 1886-1889. It was in Paris that he was first exposed to the Impressionist technique, and he was greatly influenced by the works of Claude Monet (1840-1926) and Camille Pissarro (1831-1903). The Impressionists aimed to capture the fleeting moments of time as recorded in the almost imperceptible changes in light, color, and atmosphere. Though Hassam has not fractured his colors to the degree usually associated with French Impressionist works, the short, choppy brushstrokes and vivid juxtapositions of color combine to form a painting that is far more concerned with capturing atmosphere than with veristic reproduction. In this way, Hassam has conformed completely to the Impressionist ideal. When Ironbound entered into the museum's collection in 1957, it was known as Palisades from Yonkers. However, research undertaken in the 1990s unearthed a photograph of the painting in a 1917 auction catalogue in which it was titled Ironbound. As such, this is a painting of the coastline in the Mount Desert region of Maine. This harmonizes with the date of 1896 because we know Hassam summered in Maine at that time.


George L. Noyes (Canadian, 1864–1951)
Santa Maria del Fiore, c. 1925
Oil on canvas, 30 1/4 x 34 1/8 in.
Bequest of Nettie Olin Barbour Estate

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George Loftus Noyes was born in Ontario, Canada, to American parents. From 1890 to 1894 he lived in Europe, studying for three of those years at the Académie Colorossi in Paris. Upon returning to the United States, George L. Noyes set up a successful studio in Boston. In 1900 he taught his first art classes in Annisquam, Massachusetts; among his first students was the illustrator N.C. Wyeth (1882-1945), father of the renowned American painter Andrew Wyeth (1917-2009). In 1915, Noyes received the silver medal at the Panama-Pacific Exposition in San Francisco, where he competed against other artists such as Childe Hassam (1859-1935) and Willard L Metcalf (1858-1925). George L. Noyes is best known for his landscapes; the overtly religious subject matter of this painting is uncharacteristic. It is a still life composed of a panel depicting the Madonna and Child and a rosary, among other religious accoutrements. The bright, vivid coloring and quick, short brushstrokes betray the heavy influence of French Impressionism on Noyes' technique. In the early 1930s, when Noyes was approaching his seventies, he resided in Winter Park and taught art at Rollins College for a short time. After leaving Florida, Noyes lived out the remaining years of his life in Vermont.


Arthur Bowen Davies (American, 1862–1928)
Dweller on the Threshold, c. 1915
Oil on canvas, 17 x 21 3/4 in.
Bequest of Virginia Keep Clark

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Arthur Bowen Davies' most lasting contribution to American art is found not in the paintings he produced but rather in the paintings he brought over from Europe for the famed New York Armory Show in 1913. It was at the Armory Show that large numbers of Americans were introduced to the likes of Picasso, Kirchner, Van Gogh, Matisse, Brancusi, and Gauguin among many others. The importance of this exhibition in the formation of the American response to modernism cannot be overstated. Arthur B. Davies was also the personal art advisor to Mrs. Lily Bliss, one of the founders of the Museum of Modern Art in New York. Mrs. Bliss was a cousin to the donor of this painting, Mrs. Virginia Keep Clark. While Davies had an unerring eye when it came to selecting the most important and revolutionary European art to display in America, his own imagery was fairly tame. Davies was primarily influenced by the French artist Pierre Puvis de Chavannes (1824-1898) and the Symbolists, who aimed to create a visual language illuminating the soul. Davies' works are often populated by nudes and unicorns in a dream-like atmosphere. He studied the frescoes at Pompeii and often used long, horizontal canvases and a shallow field of depth. In Dweller on the Threshold, Arthur B. Davies presents a dream world filled with complex symbolism. A nude, auburn-haired woman stands with her back to the viewer. She is standing before a mirror as a diaphanous orange scarf encircles her head and trails off her extended arm. Who is she? What is taking place? As we realize the canvas is acting as a mirror it therefore becomes clear that the ambiguous landscape is not in front of us but rather behind us. We, the viewers, then become inhabitants of this constructed environment.


Robert Henri (American, 1865–1929)
Mountain Ash, Dark Woods, 1911
Oil on panel, 15 x 11 3/8 in.
Gift of Samuel B. and Marion W. Lawrence

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Robert Henri (pronounced HEN-rye) was born in 1866 in Cincinnati, Ohio. Originally his surname was Cozad, but this was changed after a scandal in which his father was implicated in a murder. In 1886, Henri enrolled in the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, and in 1888 he traveled to Paris, studying at the Académie Julian. In 1901, after returning to the United States, Henri taught with William Merritt Chase (1849-1916) at the New York School of Art. Mountain Ash, Dark Woods was painted during a trip to Maine in the summer of 1911. In his record book, Henri noted this painting as, "dead trees against dark blue sky spot at top Mt. Ash." The thick layering of paint, deep, vibrant palette, and tight composition are all in keeping with his style. In certain places Henri has allowed the vertical grain of the panel to show through the paint adding a further layer of texture. Robert Henri, along with William Glackens and Arthur B. Davies, as well as five other artists, formed a group known as "The Eight" and exhibited in 1908 at the Macbeth Galleries in New York City. Henri, along with other members of The Eight, would go on to develop a loose confederation of likeminded artists known as the "Ashcan School." Members of both groups wanted to invigorate the style and subject matter of American painting. The Ashcan School painters would be particularly associated with scenes of urban realism.


Jonas Lie (American, 1880–1940)
Dusk on Lower Broadway, c. 1910
Oil on canvas, 37 1/2 x 31 1/2 in.
Gift of the family in memory of Dr. James B. Thomas, rector of All Saints Episcopal Church, Winter Park, FL

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Jonas Lie (pronounced 'lee') was born in Moss, Norway, to a Norwegian father and Connecticut-born mother. His father died when Jonas was eleven and the family relocated to Plainfield, New Jersey. As the eldest son, it was his responsibility to support the family, which he did for nine years by designing calico shirts in a cotton factory. Lie loved to travel and had probably been to Paris twice before he painted Dusk on Lower Broadway. In Paris, the artist encountered the works of the Impressionist Claude Monet, the Post-Impressionist Paul Gauguin, and the Fauvist Henri Matisse; the styles of each of these painters would inform Lie's later work. Certainly in this picture one sees the quick, short brushwork and atmospheric rendering associated with Impressionism. The capturing of minute detail is not the aim of the painter here; rather, Lie has sought to capture the quality of light and the "feeling" of a winter's afternoon, as busy New Yorkers hurry along lower Broadway. Jonas Lie was quite successful in New York. He is best remembered today for a series of paintings detailing the work on the Panama Canal (now housed at the United States Military Academy at West Point). He was sufficiently respected by his fellow artists to help organize the now famous New York Armory Show of 1913, during which America was introduced to the avant-garde art of Europe. Lie, however, resigned from the show's planning committee in protest over the preference given to European over American artists. His work continued in a traditional vein when compared to the aesthetic experiments, such as Cubism, that other artists undertook in Europe and America.


Ernest Lawson (American, 1873–1939)
Bend in the River, c. 1906
Oil on panel, 16 x 20 in.
Gift of Samuel B. and Marion W. Lawrence

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Ernest Lawson was born in Halifax, Canada, but first studied at the Art League School in Kansas City, Missouri in 1888. From there he went to the Academia de Bellas Artes de San Carlos in Mexico City. Following time spent in New York City studying at the Art Students League under John H. Twachtman (1853-1902) and Julian Alden Weir (1852-1919), two of the foremost American Impressionists, Lawson moved to Paris where he lived with the writer Somerset Maugham and briefly studied at the Académie Julian. Maugham based the character Frederick Lawson in his novel Of Human Bondage (1915) on Ernest Lawson. In Paris, Lawson was particularly influenced by the works of Cézanne and Sisley. When he returned to New York in 1898, his paintings were characterized by impasto (a thick buildup of paint), pronounced contour lines, and large areas of bold color--all of which may be seen in Bend in the River. Lawson’s works tend to be landscapes of semi-industrial Manhattan and the lower Hudson River. Robert Henri invited Lawson to exhibit with "The Eight," a group of eight painters who joined together to encourage stylistic variation in American art, at the Macbeth Galleries in New York in 1908. During the 1920s Lawson taught painting in Kansas City and Colorado Springs; he moved to Florida in 1936.


William Merritt Chase (American, 1849–1916)
Young Woman with Red Flowers, 1904
Oil on canvas, 24 x 17 3/4 in.
Gift of Gertrude Lundberg Richards

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William Merritt Chase studied at the National Academy of Design in New York from 1869 to 1871. He would become a famous teacher of art at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Arts, and, later, at the Chase School in New York City, which would eventually become the Parsons School of Design. He became a member of the Art Students League, which encouraged American art, as opposed to art derived from Europe. His students were numerous, among them Georgia O'Keeffe, Joseph Stella, and Charles Sheeler. Young Woman with Red Flowers was a demonstration piece painted by Chase in class; it was given to his former student and donor of this portrait, Mrs. Gertrude Lundberg Richards, by the Director of the Chase School when she left. Mrs. Richards, who watched Chase paint this study, related that Chase did the painting in two hours, without correcting, drawing as he painted. Georgia O'Keeffe has noted that Chase required a painting a day from his students.

Winslow Homer (woodcut engravings)

Stuart Bivouac  Sully Bluff Snap Dad Nooning 


Winslow Homer (American, 1836–1910)
Hon. Abraham Lincoln Born in Kentucky, November 10, 1860
Wood engraving, 10 7/8 x 9 1/4 in.
Purchased with the James and Suzanne Markel Fund

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Winslow Homer (American, 1836–1910)
A Bivouac Fire on the Potamac, 1861
Wood engraving, 13 3/4 x 20 1/4 in.
Gift of James and Suzanne Market

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Winslow Homer (American, 1836–1910)
Homeward-Bound, 1867
Wood engraving, 13 7/8 x 20 3/8 in.
Purchased with the James and Suzanne Markel Fund

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Winslow Homer (American, 1836–1910)
On the Bluff at Long Branch, at the Bathing Hour, 1870
Wood engraving, 9 x 13 5/8 in.
Purchased with the James and Suzanne Markel Fund1989.01.165.PR

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Winslow Homer (American, 1836–1910)
Snap-the-Whip, 1873
Wood engraving, 13 1/4 x 20 1/2 in.
Purchased with the James and Suzanne Markel Fund

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Many of Homer's illustrations feature fashionably dressed young women in various states of activity or leisure in both town and country settings. However, after the end of the Civil War, Winslow Homer began constructing scenes which focused on children and in particular the state of a quintessentially American childhood. This is a logical choice as a war-torn America looked to its youth as symbols of a stable and prosperous tomorrow. Continuing the theme of American childhood, Homer meticulously rendered an illustration of what has become one of his best-loved paintings, Snap-the-Whip, now in the collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. In constructing his illustrations, Winslow Homer often borrowed elements from his paintings and rearranged them into new compositions. Yet, in Snap-the-Whip he conscientiously preserves the composition of the earlier painting with as much detail as possible. It is as if Homer understood the iconic nature of this vision of carefree, barefooted youths running through the expansive American landscape. Though this is one of his most vigorous scenes, again there is a slight disconnect between the participants. Each looks forward, not at one another. Can this be read as the children of America looking and running toward their future free of the constraints of a divided country?


Winslow Homer (American, 1836–1910)
Dad's Coming!, 1873
Wood engraving, 9 1/4 x 13 5/8 in.
Purchased with the James and Suzanne Markel Fund

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Just as those living in New York City today, in the summers Winslow Homer would leave the oppressive heat and congestion of the metropolis for the cooler quiet of the New England countryside and beaches. A number of his illustrations for the pictorial weeklies record the life of the fashionable leisure class as they whiled away the hours of summer. Not all of Homer's seaside illustrations dealt exclusively with the leisure class; these illustrations also bring to mind the fact that the people of these seaside villages were dependent on the ocean for their livelihoods. Such is the case of Dad's Coming!. This image, based on an earlier oil of the same name, is a poignant reminder of the often tedious, sometimes tragic liminal space inhabited as a family waits for a beloved father's return. In the illustration, Homer has increased the space between the child, who is looking out to sea, and the woman (his mother?), who stands holding another child, thus increasing the tension. Again, the figures look into the distance, not at one another. The distance and lack of communication between the figures mirrors the distance and silence of the absent father. The title phrase, "Dad's Coming!", offers hope that the father will indeed return. Yet, in a watercolor variation of this work, Homer changed the title to Waiting for Dad; the verb "waiting" conjures a less certain outcome. That Homer would change the title of his watercolor version to one that is arguably more ambiguous may be tied to events of August 1873. That month, while he was vacationing in Gloucester, Massachusetts, over one hundred of the local fishermen were lost at sea during a storm. When Harper's Weekly ran this illustration three months after the tragedy, it included a short poem full of optimism as "little Johnny" shouted with glee at the sight of his father's ship on the horizon. No such joy can be found in Homer's taut composition.


Winslow Homer (American, 1836–1910)
The Nooning, 1873
Wood engraving, 9 1/8 x 13 3/4 in.
Purchased with the James and Suzanne Markel Fund

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Many of Homer's illustrations feature fashionably dressed young women in various states of activity or leisure in both town and country settings. However, after the end of the Civil War, Winslow Homer began constructing scenes which focused on children and in particular the state of a quintessentially American childhood. This is a logical choice as a war-torn America looked to its youth as symbols of a stable and prosperous tomorrow. In The Nooning, Homer uses an oil painting of the same name, painted the previous year, as his foundation. The illustration in Harper's Weekly, however, maintains the dog that is painted over in the oil version; he has also added two boys, laundry on the clothesline, and a woman feeding chickens. In this quaint image of Americana one sees children at rest and the viewer is meant to recall his or her own childhood summer days in a nostalgic interlude.

The Alfond Collection of Contemporary Art at Rollins College

The Alfond Collection of Contemporary Art at Rollins College is, at once, a collection with a point of view and a lesson in the art of our times, social history, civic mindedness, international affairs, and philanthropy, among others.  A work in progress, the collection is the brainchild of Barbara and Theodore Alfond (Rollins class of 1968), noted art collectors and patrons of several art institutions.

The collection was conceived as a visual syllabus for the liberal arts values the Alfonds learned at Rollins and which shaped not only their student years, but the rest of their lives. The curatorial narrative revolves around notions of critical thinking; literacy; enlarging one’s perspective; understanding other cultures and traditions; and language. Barbara and Ted Alfond, along with independent curator Abigail Ross Goodman, have selected and purchased to date over 130 paintings, photographs , sculptures and mixed media works by established and emerging contemporary artists from around the world.

Considering the curatorial framework, it comes as no surprise that conceptual art forms the keystone of the collection, including works by Joseph Kosuth and Lawrence Weiner. Other works speak to notions of literature and literacy (Abelardo Morell; Rachel Perry Welty; Tim Rollins and K.O.S., among others); our understanding of the other (Philip-Lorca di Corcia); the impact of past and recent wars (Martha Rosler; An My Lê); social advocacy (Alfredo Jaar; Trevor Paglen). Together, they speak to the benefits of a wide-ranging education which helps us become literate, knowledgeable members of an international society and a complex world, and the essential role of art in that education.

Most of the Alfond Collection is installed at the Alfond Inn, an elegant hotel in the heart of Winter Park, funded in part through a grant from the Harold Alfond Foundation and which opened in August 2013. The works were donated to Rollins College and are part of the permanent collection of the Cornell Fine Arts Museum.

The works below represent a portion of the Alfond Collection of Contemporary Art at Rollins College, gift of Barbara (R1968) and Theodore (R1968) Alfond.




Aaron    Abdalla    Le    Baker    Barnett    Bochner
Wade Aaron    Ahmed Abdalla    An-My Lê        Richard Baker   Gideon Barnett  Mel Bochner

Buhler-Rose    Cormand    diCorcia    Essaydi    Fernandez    Flood               
 Bühler-Rose      Cormand          diCorcia           Essaydi            Fernández        Flood                             

Frattolillo    Gamber    Gibson    Hargadon    Hilliard    Jaar   
Rinaldo          Matthew Gamber    Jeffrey         Geoff Hargadon    David Hilliard   Alfredo Jaar
Frattolillo                                  Gibson

Jones    Matt Keegan    Knoebel    Koch    Kosuth    LaDuke         William E. Jones Matt Keegan    Ima Knoebel      Lucia Koch      Joseph Kosuth    Tom LaDuke 

Lassry    Lin    Madahar    Masullo    McClure    McCurry
Elad Lassry      Maya Lin       Neeta Madahar  Andrew Masullo   Stefana McClure  Steve McCurry 

Mokgosi                        Morell    Moules    Nara    Olinger
Meleko Mokgosi  Andrew Moore  Abelardo Morell  Cobi Moules   Yoshitomo Nara  Monte Olinger  

Paglen    Perry     Plensa    Rich    Riedel   Rios
Trevor Paglen   Rachel Perry     Jaume Plensa    Daniel Rich      Michael Riedel    Marco Rios  

Rollins    Rosler    Shafie    Shapira    Shepherd    Steinbach
Tim Rollins       Martha Rosler   Hadieh Shafie    Aithan Shapira   Kate Shepherd  Haim Steinbach
and K.O.S.   

Tomaselli    Travieso    VanDerBeek    Welling    Whitten
Fred Tomaselli  Juan Travieso  Sara VanDerBeek James Welling  Jack Whitten         


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Wade Aaron
Assorted Thoughts and Aspirations, 2011
Dutch gold leaf and watercolor on paper
30 x 22 in.
Courtesy of the artist


Wade Aaron
The Myth of Compromise, 2011
Aluminum leaf and watercolor on paper
22 1/2 x 30 in.
Courtesy of the artist


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Ahmed Abdalla
Artist Statement, 2001
Ink and pigment on paper, 31 x 21 in.
Courtesy of the artist


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An-My Le

An-My Lê
29 Palms:  Force Recon,  2003–2004
Silver gelatin print (4/5)
26 1/2 x 38 x 1 1/2 in.
Courtesy of the artist and Murray Guy, New York

An le 2

An-My Lê
Untitled, Gai Lai, 1994
Silver gelatin print (4/10), 20 x 24 in.
Courtesy of the artist and Murray Guy, New York

An Le 3

An-My Lê
Untitled, Ho Chi Min City, 1995
Silver gelatin print (8/10), 20 x 24 in.
Courtesy of the artist and Murray Guy, New York

An Le 4

An-My Lê
Small Wars (Recscue), 1999–2002
Silver gelatin print (5/5)
26 1/2 X 38 X 1 1/2 in.
Courtesy of the artist and Murray Guy, New York


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Baker 1

Richard Baker
A Challenge for the Actor, 2013
Gouache, 14 1/4 x 11 3/4 in.
Courtesy of the artist and Clark Gallery, Lincoln, MA

baker 2

Richard Baker
Bi An (The Other Shore), 2013
Gouache, 11 1/4 x 14 3/4 in.
Courtesy of the artist and Clark Gallery, Lincoln, MA

Baker 3

Richard Baker
East of Eden, 2013
Gouache, 11 1/4 x 14 3/4 in.
Courtesy of the artist and Clark Gallery, Lincoln, MA

baker 4

Richard Baker
Hawaii, 2013
Gouache, 11 1/4 x 14 3/4 in.
Courtesy of the artist and Clark Gallery, Lincoln, MA

baker 5

Richard Baker
Men, Women, and Pianos, 2013
Gouache, 11 1/4 x 14 3/4 in.
Courtesy of the artist and Clark Gallery, Lincoln, MA

baker 6

Richard Baker
Tres Tristes Tigres, 2013
Gouache, 11 1/4 x 14 3/4 in.
Courtesy of the artist and Clark Gallery, Lincoln, MA

baker 7

Richard Baker
Christy, 2013
Gouache, 11 1/4 x 14 3/4 in.
Courtesy of the artist and Clark Gallery, Lincoln, MA

Baker 8

Richard Baker
Circles on the Water, 2013
Gouache, 11 1/4 x 14 3/4 in.
Courtesy of the artist and Clark Gallery, Lincoln, MA

baker 9

Richard Baker
New Hampshire, 2013
Gouache, 11 1/4 x 14 3/4 in.
Courtesy of the artist and Clark Gallery, Lincoln, MA

baker 10

Richard Baker
The Portable Nietzsche, 2013
Gouache, 11 1/4 x 14 3/4 in.
Courtesy of the artist and Clark Gallery, Lincoln, MA

baker 11

Richard Baker
Major American Poets, 2013
Gouache, 11 1/4 x 14 3/4 in.
Courtesy of the artist and Clark Gallery, Lincoln, MA

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Barnett 1

Gideon Barnett
Identity Festival Attendees at Biscayne Boulevard and NE 2nd Street, 4:45:32 PM to 4:45:51 PM.  4 August 2012, 2012
Pigment ink print on cotton rag paper cold-mounted to dibond in artist's frame, 1 of 3 (1 AP)
42 x 59 3/4 in.
Courtesy of the artist

Barnett Collins

Gideon Barnett
763 Collins Avenue, 7:04:59 PM, 5 August, 2012, Miami Beach, Florida, 2012
Pigment ink print on cotton rag paper cold-mounted to dibond in artist's frame, 1 of 3 (1 AP), 14 x 14 in.
Courtesy of the artist

Barnett Collins 3

Gideon Barnett
763 Collins Avenue, 5:39:36 PM, 19th August, 2012, Miami Beach, Florida, 2012
Pigment ink print on cotton rag paper cold-mounted to dibond in artist's frame, 1 of 3 (1 AP), 14 x 14 in.
Courtesy of the artist

Barnett Collins 4

Gideon Barnett
763 Collins Avenue, 5:56:11 PM, 19th August, 2012, Miami Beach, Florida, 2012
Pigment ink print on cotton rag paper cold-mounted to dibond in artist's frame, 1 of 3 (1 AP), 14 x 14 in.
Courtesy of the artist


Gideon Barnett
763 Collins Avenue, 6:41:47 PM, 19th August, 2012, Miami Beach, Florida, 2012
Pigment ink print on cotton rag paper cold-mounted to dibond in artist's frame, 1 of 3 (1 AP), 14 x 14 in.
Courtesy of the artist


Gideon Barnett
763 Collins Avenue, 6:49:53 PM, 19 August, 2012, Miami Beach, Florida, 2012
Pigment ink print on cotton rag paper cold-mounted to dibond in artist's frame, 1 of 3 (1 AP), 14 x 14 in.
Courtesy of the artist

Barnett Collins

Gideon Barnett
763 Collins Avenue, 2:41:42 PM, 15 September, 2012, Miami Beach, Florida, 2012
Pigment ink print on cotton rag paper cold-mounted to dibond in artist's frame, 1 of 3 (1 AP), 14 x 14 in.
Courtesy of the artist

Barnett 2

Gideon Barnett
763 Collins Avenue, 2:43:42 PM, 15 September, 2012, Miami Beach, Florida, 2012
Pigment ink print on cotton rag paper cold-mounted to dibond in artist's frame, 1 of 3 (1 AP), 14 x 14 in.
Courtesy of the artist


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Mel Bochner
Blah Blah Blah, 2013
Monoprint with collage, engraving, and embossment on hand-dyed twinrocker handmade paper, 94 x 73 in.
Publisher:  Two Palms, New York


Michael Bühler-Rose
The Secret, Alachua, FL, 2006
Archival pigment print, 1 of 5, 40 x 50 in.
Courtesy of the artist and Carroll and Sons, Boston


Martí Cormand
Formalizing their concept:  Cildo Meireles' "Insertions Into Ideological Circuits:  Coca Cola Project" 1970, 2012
Graphite and oil on paper, 13 x 14 1/2 in.
Courtesy of the artist and Josée Bienvenu Gallery


Martí Cormand
Formalizing their concept: Lawrence Weiner's "A translation from one language to another" 1969, 2012
Graphite and oil on paper, 13 x 15 1/2 in.
Courtesy of the artist and Josée Bienvenu Gallery


Philip-Lorca di Corcia
W, September 2000, #6
Archival pigment print (9 of 15, 2 APs)
32 x 42 in. 
Courtesy the artist and David Zwimer,
New York/London

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Lalla Essaydi
Harem #1, 2009
C-41 print triptych mounted on aluminum
60 x 48 in.
Courtesy of Howard Yezerski Gallery


Teresita Fernández
Nocturnal (Cobalt Panorama), 2012
Solid graphite on two wood panels, 36 x 48 in.
©Teresita Fernández, Courtesy of the artist and Lehmann Maupin, New York/Hong Kong


Mark Flood
Mirror, Mirror, 2012
Acrylic on canvas, 96 x 52 in.
Courtesy of the artist and Zach Feuer Gallery, New York


Rinaldo Frattolillo
Mr. Goodbar, 2007
Screenprint (28 of 45), 35 x 60 in.
Courtesy of the artist

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Matthew Gamber
tanford Bunny (x1), 2012
Digital C-print, 30 x 40 in.
Courtesy of the artist and Gallery Kayafas, Boston

Gamber 2

Matthew Gamber
tanford Bunny (x2), 2012
Digital C-print, 30 x 40 in.
Courtesy of the artist and Gallery Kayafas, Boston


Jeffrey Gibson
Constellation, No. 11
Acrylic on deer hide-covered wood panel
22 x 18 in.
Courtesy of Marc Straus LLC, New York and Samson, Boston


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 Hargadon 1

Geoff Hargadon
Rose (from the series Cash for Your Warhol), 2009
Digital C-print (4 of 6), 16 x 24 in.
Courtesy of the artist and Gallery Kayafas

Hargadon 2

Geoff Hargadon
Miami Palm Trees (from the series Cash for Your Warhol), 2011
Digital C-print (1 of 6), 16 x 24 in.
Courtesy of the artist and Gallery Kayafas

Hargadon 3

Geoff Hargadon
Miami Plaque (from the series Cash for Your Warhol), 2011
Digital C-print (1 of 6), 16 x 24 in.
Courtesy of the artist and Gallery Kayafas

Hargadon 3

Geoff Hargadon
Ruiz Cohen (from the series Cash for Your Warhol), 2010
Digital C-print (1 of 6), 16 x 24 in.
Courtesy of the artist and Gallery Kayafas

Hargadon 4

Geoff Hargadon
Underbelly(from the series Cash for Your Warhol), 2011
Digital C-print (1 of 6), 16 x 24 in.
Courtesy of the artist and Gallery Kayafas

Hargadon 5

Geoff Hargadon
195 West (from the series Cash for Your Warhol), 2011
Digital C-print (1 of 6), 16 x 24 in.
Courtesy of the artist and Gallery Kayafas

Hargadon 6

Geoff Hargadon
29th Street Billboard, 2011 (from the series Cash for Your Warhol), 2011
Digital C-print (1 of 6), 16 x 24 in.
Courtesy of the artist and Gallery Kayafas

Hargadon 7

Geoff Hargadon
Miami Beach (from the series Cash for Your Warhol), 2011
Digital C-print (1 of 6), 16 x 24 in.
Courtesy of the artist and Gallery Kayafas

Hargadon 8

Geoff Hargadon
Miami Clutch (from the series Cash for Your Warhol), 2011
Digital C-print (1 of 6), 16 x 24 in.
Courtesy of the artist and Gallery Kayafas


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David Hilliard
From the series The Tale is True:  Some Days Have Gone, 2012
C-print (2 of 12), 3 panels:  24 x 60 in. overall
Courtesy of the artist and Carroll and Sons, Boston


Hilliard 2

David Hilliard
Wiser Than Despair, 2012
C-print (2 of 12), 4 panels:  24 x 80 in. overall
Courtesy of the artist and Carroll and Sons, Boston



Alfredo Jaar
Angel, 2007
C-print mounted on plexiglass (2 of 6)
24 3/4 x 81 in.
©Alfredo Jaar, Courtesy of Galerie Lelong, New York



William E. Jones
Color Coordinated Currency, 2012
Seven hand-coated pigment prints
(1of 3, 2 APs), 9 3/4 x 15 1/2 in.
Courtesy of the artist and David Kordansky Gallery, Los Angeles, CA.  Photography by Brian Forrest


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Matt Keegan
Don't Worry (a sculpture by Matt Keegan, from a poster by James Richards, of a poem by Josef Albers), 2012
Stainless steel, spray finish, 1 of 3
40 x 48 x 10 in.
Courtesy of the artist and Simone Subal Gallery, New York


Imi Knoebel
Alte Liebe, 2011
Acrylic, 33 1/2 x 130 x 4 1/4 in.
Courtesy of the artist and Galerie von Bartha, Basel


Lucia Koch
From the series Fundos:  Café Extra-Forte, 2011
Lightjet print, 3 of 6, 98 x 154 in.
Courtesy of the artist


Joseph Kosuth
No #3, 1991
Warm white neon mounted directly on wall
5 1/2 x 102 in.
©Joseph Kosuth, Courtesy of the artist and Sean Kelly, New York


Tom LaDuke
Mirror Drive, 2013
Oil and acrylic on canvas over panel
20 x 20 in.
Courtesy of the artist and CRG Gallery, New York.  Photograph courtesy of Susan Alzner, New York



Elad Lassry
Four Braids (Yellow), 2012
C-print with painted frame, 4 of 5 (2 AP)
14 1/2 x 11 1/2 x 1 1/2 in.
Courtesy of the artist and David Kordansky Gallery, Los Angeles


 Elad Lassry
Women (055, 065), 2012
C-print with painted frame (3 of 5, 2 AP)
14 1/2 x 11 1/2 x 1 1/2 in.
Courtesy of the artist and David Kordansky Gallery, Los Angeles


Elad Lassry
Ginori (Yellow), 2011
C-print with white painted frame, 1 of 5 (2 AP)
11 1/2 x 14 1/2 x 1 1/2 in.
Courtesy of the artist and David Kordansky Gallery, Los Angeles


Elad Lassry
Man (Soccer Balls), 2012
C-print with white painted frame, 1 of 5 (2 AP)
14 1/2 x 11 1/2 x 1 1/2 in.
Courtesy of the artist and David Kordansky Gallery, Los Angeles


Maya Lin
Silver Thames, 2012
Recylcled silver, 1 of 3 (2 AP)
19 x 78 x 1/2 in. 
© Maya Lin Studio, Courtesy of Pace Gallery

Madahar 1

Neeta Madahar
Falling 2, 2005
Lightjet print face mounted on plexiglass
30 x 30 in.
Courtesy of Howard Yezerski Gallery


Neeta Madahar
Falling 4, 2005
Lightjet print face mounted on plexiglass
30 x 30 in.
Courtesy of Howard Yezerski Gallery


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Masullo 5

Andrew Masullo
Untitled (4469), 2005
Oil on canvas, 12 x 16 in.
Courtesy of the artist and Steven Zevitas Gallery, Boston, MA



Andrew Masullo
Untitled (4546), 2006
Oil on canvas, 12 x 16 in.
Courtesy of the artist and Steven Zevitas Gallery, Boston, MA


Masullo 2

Andrew Masullo
Untitled (5001), 2008
Oil on canvas, 14 x 18 in.
Courtesy of the artist and Steven Zevitas Gallery, Boston, MA


Masullo 3

Andrew Masullo
Untitled (5157), 2009–2010
Oil on canvas, 24 x 20 in.
Courtesy of the artist and Steven Zevitas Gallery, Boston, MA


Masullo 4

Andrew Masullo
Untitled (5260), 2010–2011
Oil on canvas, 20 x 16 in.
Courtesy of the artist and Steven Zevitas Gallery, Boston, MA


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McClure 1

Stefana McClure
Roshomon:  English subtitles to a film by Akira Kurosawa, 2011
Wax transfer paper mounted on dibond
39 x 60 in.
Courtesy of the artist and Josée Bienvenu Gallery

McClure 2

Stefana McClure
The Sound of Music:  closed captions to a film by Robert Wise, 2008
Blue transfer paper mounted on dibond
23 1/4 x 32 3/10 in.
Courtesy of the artist and Josée Bienvenu Gallery


Steve McCurry
Sharbat Gula, Afghan Girl, Pakistan, 1984
C-type print on Fuji crystal archive paper
24 x 20 in.
®Steve McCurry, Courtesy of Peter Fetterman Gallery


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Meleko Mokgosi
Modern Art:  The Root of African Savages, 2013
Inkjet and charcoal on linen
10 panels:  36 x 24 in. each
Courtesy of Honor Fraser Gallery.  Photography by Farzad Owrang




Andrew Moore
European Beech, Vassar College 2007
Chomogenic print, 68 x 56 1/2 in., 1 of 15
Courtesy of the artist and Yancey Richardson Gallery©Andrew Moore






Albelardo Morell
Drink Me, 1998
Archival pigment print, 40 x 30 in., 1 of 15
Courtesy of the artist and Carroll and Sons, Boston


Albelardo Morell
Open Dictionary, 2001
Archival pigment print, 50 x 60 in., 1 of 5
Courtesy of the artist and Carroll and Sons, Boston


Albelardo Morell
Children's Book,, 1987
Archival pigment print, 30 x 40 in., 1 of 15
Courtesy of the artist and Carroll and Sons, Boston


Albelardo Morell
Shiny Books, 2000
Archival pigment print, 50 x 60 in., 1 of 5
Courtesy of the artist and Carroll and Sons, Boston


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Cobi Moules
Untitled (Playground), 2009
Oil on canvas, 16 x 26 in.
Courtesy of the artist and Carroll and Sons, Boston


Yoshitomo Nara
STAY, 2011
Acrylic on board, 10 1/8 x 7 in.
©Yoshitomo Nara, Courtesy Pace Gallery


Yoshitomo Nara
Untitled, 2003
Mixed media on envelope, 8 5/8 x 6 1/4 in.
©Yoshitomo Nara, Courtesy Pace Gallery


Monte Olinger
St. John's Sunset, 2012
Acrylic wash and mixed media on canvas
48 x 36 in.
Courtesy of the artist


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Trevor Paglan
The Last Pictures (The Narbona Panel; Humans Seen Through a Predator Drone), 2012
Two gelatin silver prints, 1 of 5 (2 AP)
24 x 32 in.
©Trevor Paglen, Courtesy of the artist, Metro Pictures, Altman Siegel Gallery, and Galerie Thomas Zander


Trevor Paglen
Untitled (Reaper Drone), 2012
C-print, 3 of 5 (2 AP), 48 x 60 in.
©Trevor Paglen, Courtesy of the artist, Metro Pictures, Altman Siegel Gallery, and Galerie Thomas Zander


Trevor Paglan
National Security Agency Utah Data Center, Bluffdale, UT, 2012
C-print, 1 of 5 (2 AP), 36 x 48 in.
©Trevor Paglen, Courtesy of the artist, Metro Pictures, Altman Siegel Gallery, and Galerie Thomas Zander


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Jaume Plensa
The Hermit XI, 2012
Stainless steel and stone
68 9/10 x 53 1/2 x 37 in. 
©Jaume Plensa, Courtesy of Galerie Lelong, New York



Daniel Rich
Stadium, 2012
Acrylic on dibond, 81 x 59 in.
Courtesy of the artist and Peter Blum Gallery, New York


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For an interesting look into this artist's practice, take a look at A Studio Visit with Daniel Rich.


Michael Riedel
Untitled (Comb Vertical), 2013
Silkscreen on linen, 90 1/2 x 67 x 2 1/4 in.
Courtesy of David Zwimer, New York/London



Marco Rios
The Woman Made for Me Was Not Made For Me, 2013
Photoengraving on metal, 20 x 20 in. 
Courtesy of the artist and Simon Preston, New York



Tim Rollins and K.O.S.
A Midsummer Night's Dream (after Shakespeare and Mendelssohn), 2011
Watercolor, india and acrylic inks, Thai mulberry paper, collage, mustard seed, offset lithography on music schore pages on canvas, 60 x 72 in.
©Tim Rollins and K.O.S., Courtesy of the artist and Lehmann Maupin, New York and Hong Kong


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Martha Rosler
Cellular, 2007
Digital photomontage, 20 3/4 x 24 in.
courtesy of the artist and Mitchell-Innes & Nash



Hadieh Shafie
White, Turquoise, Green, Gold, Yellow & Blue, 2012
Ink, acrylic, and paper with printed and handwritten Farsi text Esheghe (love)
36 x 36 x 3 1/2 in.
Courtesy of the artist and Leila Heller Gallery, NY



Aithan Shapira
Hungerford Bridge, 2009
Collograph, 9 panels, 84 x 107 in.
Courtesy of the artist


Aithan Shapira
Open Studio Curtain, 2011
Collograph, 9 panels, 84 x 107 in.
Courtesy of the artist


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Kate Shepherd
Blue Debris, 2010
Oil and enamel on wood panels, 78 x 48 in.
©Kate Shepherd, Courtesy of Galerie Lelong, New York


Kate Shepherd
Blue Space, Grid, 2012
Oil and enamel on wood panels
40 x 28 in.
©Kate Shepherd, Courtesy of Galerie Lelong, New York



Haim Steinbach
Untitled (travel bag), 2012
Wood, plastic laminate, and glass box; travel bag, 50 1/2 x 59 3/8 x 23 3/8 in.
Courtesy of the artist and Tanya Bonakdar Gallery, New York


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Fred Tomaselli
July 25, 2012, 2012
Gouache on printed watercolor paper
12 x 10 1/2 in.
©Fred Tomaselli, Courtesy of James Cohan Gallery, New York/Shanghai


Fred Tomaselli
May 2, 2011, 2012
Gouache on printed watercolor paper
11 x 3 3/8 in.
©Fred Tomaselli, Courtesy of James Cohan Gallery, New York/Shanghai


Fred Tomaselli
Jan. 26, 2013, 2013
Gouache on printed watercolor paper
10 3/4 x 12 in.
©Fred Tomaselli, Courtesy of James Cohan Gallery, New York/Shanghai



Juan Travieso
Lonesome George, 2013
Oil and acrylic on canvas, 48 x 72 in.
Courtesy of the artist


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Sara VanDerBeek
Metal Mirror II (Magia Naturalis), 2013
Digital C-print and mirona glass, 1 of 3
96 x 48 in.
Courtesy of the artist and Metro Pictures, New York


Sara VanDerBeek
Metal Mirror IV (Magia Naturalis), 2013
Digital C-print and mirona glass, ed. 1 of 3
96 x 48 in.
Courtesy of the artist and Metro Pictures, New York


Sara VanDerBeek
Metal Mirror V (Magia Naturalis), 2013
Digital C-print and mirona glass, ed. 1 of 3
96 x 48 in.
Courtesy of the artist and Metro Pictures, New York

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James Welling
Alcott, 2006
C-print, ed. 3 of 5, 31 1/5 x 25 in.
Courtesy of the artist and David Zwirner, New York/London


James Welling
Thoreau, 2006
C-print, ed. 3 of 5, 31 1/5 x 25 in.
Courtesy of the artist and David Zwirner, New York/London


James Welling
Emerson, 2007
C-print, ed. 4 of 5, 31 1/5 x 25 in.
Courtesy of the artist and David Zwirner, New York/London



Jack Whitten
E-Stamp IV (Five Spirals:  For Al Loving), 2007
Acrylic on canvas, 48 x 48 in.
Courtesy of Alexander Gray Associates, New York


Jack Whitten
Blue Shift, 2010
Acrylic collage on canvas, 32 1/2 x 80 3/10 in.
Courtesy of Alexander Gray Associates, New York

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